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4种逻辑悖论 – 译学馆
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4种逻辑悖论

4 Logical Paradoxes!!

Vsauce, 我是杰克,感谢您的探望
Vsauce, I ’ m Jake and thank you for visiting
因为我已经困在这椅子里好几周了
because I have been stuck in this chair for weeks.
你问我怎么了?
Why you ask?
我来告诉你吧!
Let me tell you!
就是这个东西!
It is because of this!
是什么?
What is that?
亲爱的朋友
Well my dear friend,
你可能知道
as you may know I have
我得了癌症,试着阻止它扩散
cancer and to try and stop it from spreading,
它们移除了许多皮肤,肌肉,
they removed a lot of flesh, muscle,
组织和骨头,却产生
tissue and bone and replaced
一些其他的东西…这引发了我的思考,是什么让你成为你
it with something else…and that got me thinking, about what makes you you.
接着换个角度我就想到了悖论
Which then in turn got me thinking about paradoxes.
尤其是逻辑悖论或者说是思维实验
Specifically logical paradoxes or thought experiments.
知道吗 我这里有个东西
Ya know there is one in particular that pertains
它和消除、取代密切相关…出去看看吧
to the removal and replacement of certainthings…let’s go outside
卖个小关子 我还弄明白了
Quick little side note: I also figured out
远距离传送问题 但我们以后再讨论…其实
teleportation but we ’ ll discuss that later…ya know
你也应该来这儿
you should come out here too.
我们一起来讨论忒修斯之船吧!
So we can discuss the ship of Theseus!
忒修斯之船可以很直白的说明逻辑悖论
The ship of Theseus is pretty straightforward as far as logical paradoxes go.
设想一下 我们有一艘船 很不错的船
Let’s say we have a ship, and it’s a very nice ship.
但过了一会儿,我们用木头替换了它
But after a while we end up replacing all the wood
不一会儿我们换了帆
and then a while later we replace the sails,
又一会儿我们换了船钩
then a while later we replace the hooks.
它还是最初的船么?
Is it still the same ship?
还是一个新船?
Or is it a new ship?
一个不一样的船?
A different ship?
我们走的再远些
let’s go a step further.
假设我们留下了
Let ’ s say we kept
被取代的这艘船的所有碎片
all the pieces of this ship that we replaced
用它们做成另一艘船…一艘完全一样的
And used them to make another ship…an identical one.
这是最初的那艘呢?还是这艘是呢?
Is this one the original or is this one?
还是它们都不是呢?
Or are they both not original?
是什么让一些东西保持原样呢?
What makes something truly original?
我需要一些沙子
I need some sand.
这儿有我想要的一堆沙子
Here I have what I would consider a heap
这就是我们的下一个逻辑悖论实验
of sand which leads us into our next logical paradox.
连锁推理悖论
The Sorites paradox.
sorities在古希腊表示“堆”
Sorites in ancientgreek meaning heap. So,
这就是一堆 ,对吧?
we have our heap, right?
那如果我们拿走一粒沙会发生什么呢?
But what happens if we take away a grain of sand? Well,
仍然是个沙堆
it’s still a heap.
接着我们拿走 另一粒沙…仍是一个堆
But then we take away another grain… Still a heap.
继续拿走一粒,又一粒,直到 变成这样
But then wetake another, and another, until we get this.
这是一堆么?
Is this a heap?
那这样呢? 或者这样?
What about this? Or this?
如果我们不断拿走沙子直到
If we remove a grain until only one
仅剩一粒…这还是沙堆么?
is left…is this still a heap?
在哪一点上我们不再觉得它是沙堆了呢?
At what pointdo we no longer consider it a heap?
来反向思考一下
Let’s reverse it.
我们从一粒沙开始
We start with a singlegrain of sand.
显然我们不会 称它为堆
Obviously not what we would call a heap.
但我们加入一粒一粒 又一粒
But then we add a grain and another,and another.
什么时候它变成了一堆沙子?
When does it become a heap of sand?
好吧 我们不用实物举例
Ya know, instead of using objects as our examples,
就口头讨论一下悖论吧
let ’ s discuss a paradox that instead, uses words.
我们每天都在用语言交流 但今天
We interact with words every day but today
我们就关注两个词 自动逻辑
we are going to focus on just two words, autological and heterological,
和异质 这是格林尼尔森悖论的关键
these are essential forThe Grelling-Nelson Paradox.
一个自动逻辑词是描述它自身的 例如 能读的出的就是可读的
An autological word is a word that describes itself. For example: pronounceable is pronounceable,
音节多的就是多音节的 一个名词就是一个名词
polysyllabic is polysyllabic, and a noun isa noun.
接着 异质就是一个无法描述自身的单词 例如 紫色
Then there is heterological where a word doesnot describe itself.
不是紫色的 三角形不是一个三角 而连字符也不是连字符组成的
For example purple is not purple, triangle is not a triangle and hyphenated is not hyphenated.
悖论问题出现了 当我们问道 单词“异质” 是异质么?
The paradox comes into play when we ask thequestion: Is the word “heterological” heterological?
如果你说不是 那么异质就不能描述它自身
If you say no, then heteorological does notdescribe itself.
如果它不是异质 那么它就一定是自动逻辑并能描述自身
And if it’s not heterological then it must be autological and describe itself.
但如果它是自动逻辑 那么异质
but if it is autological then heterological
就描述了自身 因此 异质就是异质 这是悖论
describes itself and therefor heterologicalis heterological. Paradox.
如果你说是的 一直不能描述自身 那就是说 异质不是异质
If you say yes, heterological does not describe itself then that means heterological
这也是悖论 来换一种方式
is not heterological ,Paradox.
我们把忒修斯船的各部分
Let’s try something,Let ’ s combine aspects of the ship of Theseus
和连锁推理悖论结合在一起 再应用到我们身上
and the Sorites paradox and apply it to ourselves.
就算我的腿的一部分被替换了 我还是我 对么?
Even though part of my leg was replaced I am still me, right?
就算我的整个腿都没了 我仍旧是我
If my entire leg were removed, I’d stillbe me.
那么何时我才不再是我了呢?
So at what point am I no longer myself?
你的多少个部分被除去了 你才不再是你了呢?
How much would have to be removed for you to no longer be you?
或者说 是什么让我们成为我们 我们能有我们现在是谁和我们曾经是谁的记忆
Or is what makes us us our memories of who we are
例如 你有别于 婴儿时的你
and of who we were?For example, you are different than when you were a baby.
显然 你更高了 变重了点 长着不同的头发 不同的牙齿
Obviously you are taller, a little bit heavier, you have different hair, different teeth,
出生后 你所有的细胞都更新换代了
and all of your cells have been replaced since birth.
就是说 你的个性已经改变了
I mean your personality has changed.
你的观点也变了…所以 你怎么还能是原来那个你呢?
Your opinions have changed…so how are you the sameperson?
其实吧…也许我们应该暂停远距离传动
Ya know… maybe we should lay off the teleportation
不仅仅是因为你已经不是原来的你
for a little not just because of that but also
还因为我已经在思考一些问题…远距离传动悖论
because I’ve been thinking of something… the teletransportation paradox.
假设我们有 一台机器
Let ’ s say we have
它能把你从这儿运到那儿
a machine that can teleport you from here to there.
只是为了 运输你
In order to transmit you though,
这台机器杀了你 迅速把你分解成
the machine kills you and instantly breaks you down into all
原子 又立即让你复原 然后它传输了所有数据 有关曾经的你 给了另一台机器
the atoms that once made you up. It then transmits all the data of what you were to another machine
它在另一个地方 重造了你
in a different location which remakes you.
它把不同的原子放在了正确的地方
Putting different atoms in the right spot.
所以问题是
So the question is,
一个进入一台机器的人 和从另一台机器出来的人
is the person who went into the machine the same person coming out
是同一个人么?
of the other machine?
你们有着相同的记忆
You have the same memories,
相同的思想 但形成你的身体
the same thoughts, but everything that physically
都变了
makes you is different.
你能记起所有被运输和被重组的事情
You’d remember everythingup to being teleported and reemerging on the
但这其间的过程都丢失了 那么
other side – everything in between would belost. So,
是你的身份 你的情感
is it your identity, your emotions,
感觉还是你的思想 让你成为你呢?
feelings and is it your thoughts that make you you?
其实 你已经在接近答案了
Ya know, you should come a little bit closer.
当你早上醒来
When you wake up in the morning,
你怎么知道你和昨天上床睡觉的你
how do you know that you ’ re the same person as who went
是同一个人?怎么知道当我闭上眼睛
to sleep? How do I know that when I close my eyes,
有一个同样的我睁开了双眼?
is the same Jake opening them?
也许每次我们睁开双眼我们都被重造了
Maybe every time we open our eyes we are being created again and again
从我们现在是谁这个想法开始…从
from the idea of who we are…from
我们的身份认同感开始
our sense of identity. And,
再次感谢您的观看
as always, thanksfor watching.

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视频概述

用简单明了的例子解释了悖论

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Daniel.

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ME1XNMjXjZU

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