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三条防晒之路

3 Ways Your Sun Protection Can Backfire

每个像我这样容易晒伤皮肤的人
Everyone with sunburn-prone skin like myself
都有自己的防紫外线的方法
has their own little tricks to steer clear of the sun’s ultraviolet wrath.
毕竟这是一种致命激光
It is, after all, a deadly laser!
但是人们防晒的一些方法
But some of the things people do to keep themselves from getting burned 
并没有想象的有用
aren’t nearly as effective as you might think.
长期来看 有些方法比
And long-term, some can be more dangerous
一开始涂足量防晒霜还要危险
than just wearing enough sunscreen in the first place.
比如 穿衣服
Like for example wearing clothes.
晒痕可能会让你觉得衣服能完美防晒
Tan lines might give you the impression that all clothes are perfect sun blockers.
即使有些衣服的防晒能力比最好的防晒霜还好
But even though some clothes are better than the best sunscreens,
但其他衣服并没有什么用
others don’t do very much at all.
晒伤和棕色皮肤都是由多种紫外线造成的
Sunburn and tans are both caused by the sun’s ultraviolet light
并从不同方面损坏你的皮肤
interacting with and damaging your skin in different ways.
有些材料的防紫外线性能更好
And some materials are better at blocking UV than others.
比如牛仔就是完美的防晒材料
So jeans, for example, are pretty much perfect for sun protection.
牛仔阻挡了99.94%的紫外线 这意味着
Jeans block about 99.94% of UV, which means you’d have to
比涂了SPF1700的防晒霜还好
wear SPF 1700 broad-spectrum sunscreen to do any better.
因为牛仔材料是由厚的紧密的材料组成的
Since they’re made of thick, tightly-woven fabric
牛仔就能很好地挡紫外线
jeans happen to be especially good at blocking UV.
一般来说 大多光滑的合成织物或紧密编织的织物
And generally, most fabrics made with shiny, synthetic, or tightly-woven fibers
能阻挡大量紫外线
provide lots of UV protection.
聚酯 塑料和尼龙都能阻挡至少98%的紫外线
Polyesters, plastics, and nylons all generally block at least 98% of UV light,
这使得它们的作用相当于SPF50的防晒霜
which makes them at least as good as SPF 50 sunscreen.
但也有很多像白T恤
But then there are things like white cotton shirts,
能遮挡的紫外线不超过75%
which don’t block more than about 75% of UV.
它们的作用不到SPF5
So they’re no better than about SPF 5.
这意味着 即使你在裸露的皮肤上涂着SPF10的防晒霜
Which means that if you wear sunscreen on any exposed skin even if it’s just SPF 10, 
白色棉料下的皮肤会最先被晒
the skin under a white cotton t-shirt can burn before the rest of you does.
所以你穿着这些衣服仍然会被晒伤
So you can still get sunburned through some clothes.
另一个令人惊奇的点是透过玻璃的阳光也会造成伤害
Another surprising thing you can get sun damage through is glass.
科学家把射到地球的紫外线分为两类:UVA和UVB
Scientists split the UV that hits Earth’s surface into two categories: UVA and UVB.
普通玻璃阻挡UVB
Regular glass blocks UVB,
UVB是较强的光 能导致晒伤 引发特定皮肤癌
the more energetic kind of light that mainly causes sunburns
 and certain kinds of skin cancer.
因此大部分情况下在玻璃后面是安全的
So you’re mostly safe from sunburns behind a window.
但是坏的方面是
But that’s about where the good news ends, because UVA,
较弱的UVA能穿过玻璃
the less energetic type of UV, can pass through glass.
UVA主要晒黑皮肤 引发使身体释放吸光的化学物质 黑色素
UVA mainly causes tans, where your body releases a light-absorbing chemical called melanin
以阻挡UVA过度伤害皮肤细胞
to stop the UVA from doing too much damage to your skin cells.
黑色素使皮肤变黑
The melanin is what darkens your skin.
UVA能导致皮肤老化 白内障 癌症
But the cell damage from UVA can also lead to skin aging, cataracts, and cancer.
所以即使透过玻璃不会被晒伤
So even though you won’t get burned through glass,
你仍然承受着将来面临更多问题风险
you’re still at risk for more of all those problems on long road trips.
玻璃经处理也能阻挡UVA
Glass can be treated so that it also blocks UVA.
但在车里 挡风玻璃是唯一能阻挡UVA的
But in a car, the windshield is often the only glass given the full UVA treatment.
浅色玻璃也能阻挡一点 但你要长时间开车的话
Tinted windows can also help a bit, but they’re not always as helpful as
并没有涂防晒霜有用
just wearing regular sunscreen if you’re going for a long drive.
好你知道什么比玻璃的防晒性还弱吗
Fine you know what’s even less helpful than untreated glass?
晒日光浴
Getting a base tan.
日光浴沙龙挣了很多钱 靠的是说服顾客晒太阳前做日光浴
Tanning salons make tons of money convincing customers that tanning before going out in the sun
会使皮肤在更长时间内更安全 没有其他风险
will keep their skin safer for longer without any additional risks.
这之中有一些是对的 因为晒过的皮肤更不容易晒伤
There is some truth to this, because tanned skin will take longer to burn.
但说日光浴没有风险是完全错误的
But it’s completely untrue that tans don’t carry their own risks.
颜色更深的皮肤有更多黑色素
Since darker skin has more melanin,
会吸收更多紫外线 并帮助抵抗晒伤
it’ll absorb more UV light and help protect against some of the damage that would eventually cause a sunburn.
但你仍会被晒伤 只是过程更慢点
But you can still get burned with a tan, it just happens more slowly.
这种保护的代价是当身体在形成黑色素时
And the cost of that tiny increase in sun protection was exposure to lots of skin-aging,
暴露在能使皮肤老化 伤害眼睛 免疫抑制 导致癌症的UVA下
eye-damaging, immune-suppressing, cancer-causing UVA while your body was building up melanin.
这就是室内日光浴与美国每年40万癌症病例相关的原因
Which is why indoor tanning in the United States is linked to about four hundred thousand cancer cases annually.
这看起来并不值得
And that just doesn’t seem worth it.
可能这产业时机已经到来
Maybe an industry whose time has come…
感谢收看SciShow
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow.
如果看了视频使你想遮挡起来
If it made you want to cover up or
或者有了使用何种防晒级别的防晒霜的好指导
just have a good guide for which levels of SPF you should be using,
查看SciShow官网DFTBA.com
check out our SciShow beach towel at DFTBA.com.
有一份简易的防晒霜强度信息图
It has a handy infographic about sunscreen strength and
和一些关于水池和小便的小知识
some great little facts about pools and urine.
你知道 科学是性感的
Because, you know, science is sexy!

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视频概述

防晒神话,Episode of SciShow,

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slA17a0VciY

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