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关于月球的3个未解之谜 – 译学馆
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关于月球的3个未解之谜

3 Unsolved Moon Mysteries

谁不喜欢月球呢?
Who doesn’t love the Moon?
没有它 我们就不会有浪漫的月下漫步
Without it, we wouldn’t have romantic moonlit strolls,
或潮汐的消长
or the ebb and flow of the tides.
最糟糕的是 狼人的故事将不复存在
Worst of all, there wouldn’t be werewolf stories.
但即使它是我们最亲密的邻居
But even though it’s our closest neighbor,
关于月球还有许多我们不知道的事
there’s still a lot we don’t know about the Moon.
所以让我们来谈谈最有趣的三个月球未解之谜
So let’s talk about three of the most intriguing Moon mysteries:
它的磁场 月球的日出
its past magnetic field the lunar sunrise
和在它的陨石坑里隐藏着什么
and what could be hidden inside its craters.
地球的磁场发挥大作用
Now, Earth’s magnetic field is kind of a big deal.
它帮我们导航
It helps us navigate,
并且使太阳风偏斜
and it deflects the Sun’s solar wind.
没有它 我们会被带电粒子击中 皮肤癌的患病率将飙升
Without it, we’d be hit with charged particles, skin cancer would skyrocket,
并且臭氧层将被烘烤着
and the ozone layer would be toast.
看 地球的外核是熔融的 含有带电粒子的金属流体
See, the Earth’s outer core is a molten, metallic fluid that contains electric charges.
这些电荷四处运动 产生磁场
Those charges circulate around, and create a magnetic field.
科学家称之为发电机效应
Scientists call this the dynamo effect.
在很长的一段时间里 我们认为月球不可能有磁场
For the longest time, we thought the Moon couldn’t have had a magnetic field.
但后来 阿波罗号的宇航员带回了一堆月球陨石
But then, Apollo astronauts brought home a bunch of Moon rocks,
其中许多是有磁性的
and lots of them were magnetic.
在分析这些岩石和做了一些电脑模拟之后
After analyzing these rocks and doing some computer simulations,
我们现在认为月球有一个熔融的外核
we now think that the Moon has a molten outer core,
在40亿年前 它曾经有自己的磁场
and used to have its own magnetic field … 4 billion years ago.
更重要的是 看起来月球的磁场
What’s more, it seems like the Moon’s magnetic field
甚至比地球的更强
could’ve been even stronger than the Earth’s,
并且持续的时间比我们想象的要长 可能大约十亿年
and stuck around for way longer than we thought possible – around a billion years.
这是怎么回事?
How?
这是个大秘密 但科学家们有一些想法
Well, that’s the big mystery, but scientists have a few ideas.
月球曾经比现在更接近地球 所也可能月球是晃动的
The Moon used to be closer to the Earth than it is now, so maybe the Moon wobbled,
或者旋进的 所以早在月球早期它的熔融流体就开始运动
or precessed, so much back in its early days that its molten fluids started circulating.
或者也许月球被众多小行星攻击
Or maybe the Moon was pelted with so many asteroids,
它强迫流体四处泼溅
it forced the fluids to slosh around.
但最有前景的想法之一是月球内部的混合
But one of the most promising ideas has to do with the internal layers of the Moon blending:
感谢地球引力的牵引
Thanks to the pull of Earth’s gravity,
月球的核心和地幔可能在不同的轴上旋转
the Moon’s core and mantle might have rotated on different axes.
如果这些层不是完美的球型 熔融流体就会混合在一起
If these layers weren’t perfectly spherical, the molten fluids would have mixed around.
当地球和月球分开时 地心引力减弱
As the Earth and Moon moved apart, the gravitational pull weakened,
轴之间的夹角会减小
and the angle between the axes of rotation would have decreased.
没有运动的流体意味着没有磁场
No circulating fluids means no magnetic field.
但这些仍只是假设 我们需要更多地建模
But these are still just hypotheses, and we’ll need more modeling,
特别是从从事磁发电机的科学家那里 看看有多少可能
especially from scientists who specialize in magnetic dynamos, to see how likely they are.
磁力并不是阿波罗宇航员发现的唯一奥秘
Magnetism isn’t the only mystery uncovered by Apollo astronauts:
当他们登上月球时 在太阳升到月球地平线之前看到有光存在
When they visited the Moon, they saw a glow before the Sun rose over the lunar horizon.
日出之美对于在地球上的我们来说很正常
The beauty of a sunrise might seem normal to us on Earth,
但是月球的大气层很稀薄 这意味着有更少的气体能散射光
but the Moon has an incredibly thin atmosphere, which means fewer gases to scatter light.
这些宇航员看到日出分三个部分
These astronauts saw a lunar sunrise with three parts:
刚开始从地平面升起的浅色光,形成弧线慢慢升高,最后成为太阳光。
A low glow on the horizon, a glow that arced higher, and rays of light.
研究人员认为从地平线升起的浅色光是被太阳照亮的灰尘的反射,
Researchers think the low horizon glow is dust being lit up,
就像当太阳光照进卧室,你发现你迫切需要用吸尘器打扫了。
like when light shines into your bedroom and you see how badly you need to vacuum.
弧状光线可能是日冕和黄道的折射光线
The arcing glow is probably coronal and zodiacal light,
在太阳系内部,阳光被散射在彗星和小行星组成的灰尘上,
sunlight scattering off comet and asteroid dust in the inner solar system.
有时候,我们在地球上也可以看见
Sometimes, we see it on Earth, too.
但是那些光线…我们不知道
But those rays… we don’t know
但是我们猜测,太阳辐射能电离月球颗粒
Our best guess is that the Sun’s radiation could be ionizing Moon dust,
而这些带电的微粒可能会在微亮的天空中互相排斥。
and the charged dust particles might be repelling each other into the lunar sky.
当太阳光照射到那些尘埃流时,就看到了光线
When sunlight hits those dust streams-hello rays
要明白,这些射线可能会对于人类今后征服月球有重大作用
Understanding the rays could possibly be important for future Moon colonies,
因为带电粒子不会对大量用电设备太友好。
because charged dust wouldn’t exactly be friendly to lots of electronic equipment.
在2013和2014年美国国家航空与宇宙航行局想要借助LADEE任务解决这一神秘现象
NASA wanted to solve this mystery with the LADEE mission in 2013 and 2014.
但是宇宙飞船没有找到关于神秘射线或粉尘喷泉的任何证据
But the spacecraft didn’t find evidence of mysterious rays or dust fountains.
所以目前,我们能做的就是猜测
So for now, all we can do is guess.
我们的第三个谜团不在天上,而是藏在月球环形山里面。
Our third mystery isn’t in the sky, but hidden deep inside the Moon’s craters.
环形山内被掩蔽着,比月球表面更加寒冷,所以我们能找到很多东西
Craters are sheltered and cooler than the surface, so there’s a lot we could find,
像冰,各种各样的岩石,甚至可能是过去生命的印迹
like water ice, different kinds of rocks, or even possibly signs of past life.
看,早起的太阳系完全是动荡不安的。
See, the early solar system was downright violent.
约四十亿年前,
Around 4 billion years ago,
那时地球和月亮都还年轻,他们利用小行星互相攻击
when the Earth and Moon were young and being pelted with asteroids,
因此得以交换了许多岩石。
they would’ve swapped a lot of rock.
这个现象在地球上有生命出现时也许还存在
This might’ve been when life was first forming on Earth.
这对于我们所说的单细胞生物来说可不是美好的日子
It wasn’t very flashy life for we’re talking single-celled prokaryotes.
地球和月球变得面目全非,但是它们因此更加坚韧
What they lacked in looks, they made up for in toughness.
那时,地球表面有许多火山活动和对今天大多数生物有害的大气层
Earth had lots of volcanic activity and an atmosphere that would be toxic to most life today.
大多数科学家认为这是一个持续时间很长的射击
Most scientists consider this a long shot,
但是如果有微生物在地球这个大块头撞向月球时灭绝,
but if any of these microbes ended up on a chunk of Earth that crashed into the Moon,
也许就是在一个火山口被掩埋了
they might have been buried in a crater.
在地球上的所有岩石都被破坏或者重塑了
All the rocks on Earth this old have been destroyed or reshaped,
所以我们的星球上没有任何关于这段时期的记录
so we don’t have any records of this period on our planet.
月球的环形坑可以让我们一瞥那段时期的发展历史
The Moon’s craters, though, could give us a glimpse of that period of our history,
甚至能让天体生物学家知道在月球或者其他星球上哪里能找到生命
and even let astrobiologists know where they might find life on other planets and moons.
除非我们用机器人或者一把旧式铁铲采掘到样本
We won’t know for sure until we go digging for samples,
我们才能确信无疑
whether with robots or a good old fashioned shovels.
有愿意的吗?
Any volunteers?
所以,我们的太阳系充满趣味,等待我们探索
So, our solar system is full of interesting things to explore,
每个人都很兴奋地想立即到火星去
and everyone’s really hyped about getting to Mars right now.
但是,因为我们仍然没有全面了解月球上的一切
But since we still don’t understand everything about the Moon,
也许我们应该更近的看看我们的家园
maybe we should take a look closer to home.
谢谢观看这一集的《太空科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space,
尤其感谢我们赞助商Patreon的倾情赞助
and especially to our patrons on Patron.
现在,我们要在赞助方面做一点小小的改变
Right now, we are doing something a little bit different on Patreon.
直到今年年底,我们将从赞助商Patreon处拿到的所有资金
Until the end of the year ,we are going to be taking all of the money
全部投入制作一档新节目
that we raise on Patreon and putting it toward a new show.
这个新的版块有三种选择
The three choices for the new channel are
《生活科学秀》《心理科学秀》和《健康科学秀》
SciShow Life, SciShow Psych, and SciShow Health.
如果你对其中任何版块感兴趣
If you’re interested in any of those ideas,
Patreon赞助商将会决定其中一个
Patreon patrons are going to be deciding which of these
成为一档真正的节目。
is going to be comes its own channel.
当然,如果你都不感兴趣
Of course, if you’re not interested in any of that,
也同样谢谢您的观看。
thank you for watching all the same,
不要忘记登录YouTube网站上的科学秀专区订阅我们哦
and don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!

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视频概述

月球作为我们宇宙中最亲密的邻居,井然藏着如此多的大秘密。想了解月球的磁场吗?月球上的日出有多美呢?月球嗯陨石坑里藏着什么秘密?快带着一颗好奇心一起向宇宙探索吧!

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