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3 种恐惧症和著名的 Button Boy 案例

3 Types of Phobia & The Famous Case of Button Boy

A phobia is an excessive fear of a seemingly harmless thing
恐惧是对看似无害之物的过度恐惧
and those affected, go to great lengths to avoid certain situations.
那些受影响之人会竭力避免某些场合
If a situation cannot be avoided,
如果不能规避
they experience severe distress,
他们就会经历剧烈的痛苦
panic attacks or even fainting.
恐慌 甚至晕厥
Phobias are less prevalent among children and older people,
恐惧症在儿童和老年人中并不普遍
and more common among teenagers,
在青少年中则更为常见
and especially girls.
尤其是女孩
They run in families
这可能是家族遗传
or can be the result of a traumatic experience early in life.
或是由早年的惨痛经历所造成
Phobias can be categorized into 3 types.
恐惧症可以分为三种类型
A social phobia is when we fear others,
社交恐惧症是指我们惧怕他人
especially their judgment.
尤其惧怕他人的评头论足
Agoraphobia is the fear of a situation we perceive to be unsafe
广场恐惧症是我们惧怕不安全
or difficult to escape.
或难以逃离的地方
Specific phobias include fears of certain things, or situations,
特定恐惧症是指对特定事物或场合的恐惧
such as heights, or injuries and seeing blood.
比如恐高 害怕受伤 不敢看见血
Some phobias are especially complicated
有些恐惧症尤为复杂
such as the famous case of the Button Boy.
比如著名的纽扣男孩事例
It was a normal day at kindergarten
那是幼儿园再平常不过的一天
when a 6 year old boy ran out of buttons to paste on his poster board
有个六岁男孩 他粘在海报上的纽扣用完了
and was asked to come to the front of the class to get some more.
老师叫他到教室前面再拿一些
When he reached for the bowl,
当他碰到那个碗时
his hand slipped and all the buttons fell on him.
他手滑了 所有的纽扣都撒在身上
For the boy this was a deeply traumatic event.
对这个男孩来说 这是一件非常痛苦的事
Not long after, he didn’t want to dress himself anymore.
没过多久 他就不想再打扮自己了
He began to have difficulty concentrating in class
因为把注意力都放在避免碰到自己的校服上
due to an excessive preoccupation with not touching his school uniform.
他开始很难在课堂上集中注意力
And eventually, he started avoiding people just to stay away from their buttons!
最后他开始远离人们 远离他们的纽扣
Life became so difficult that 4 years after the incident
这件事发生四年后生活变得很困难
the boy and his mother decided to seek professional help.
男孩和他的母亲开始寻求专业帮助
The psychiatrists Lissette Saavedra and Wendy Silverman
研究过这个事例的精神病学家
who studied the case were able to rule out
丽莎特·萨维德拉和温迪·西尔弗曼
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
排除了强迫症的可能性
which is often confused with a phobia,
强迫症与恐惧症常会混淆
and concluded that the boy must have developed a specific phobia for buttons.
并得出结论男孩对纽扣产生一种特殊的恐惧症
To treat the boy, the doctors invited the mother and son
为治疗这个男孩 医生邀请了母子俩
to be part of a research project.
成为研究项目的一部分
To assess the child’s progress throughout the treatment,
为评估孩子在整个治疗过程中的进展
they used a Feelings Thermometer,
他们使用了一个情感温度计
allowing the boy to grade each interaction
让男孩给每一次触摸纽扣打分
from 1, feeling happy, to 9, feeling angry.
从1高兴到9愤怒
Big, brass jeans buttons hardly bothered the boy,
大的黄铜牛仔裤纽扣几乎没有困扰男孩
but small, clear, plastic ones horrified him.
但是小的透明塑料纽扣却让他感到害怕
After the boy’s feelings were better understood,
在充分了解男孩的感受后
the doctors selected a treatment method.
医生甄选出一套治疗方案
First they tried behavioral exposure therapy,
首先他们尝试行为暴露疗法
a form of classical conditioning.
经典条件反射的一种形式
Whenever the boy touched a button successfully,
当这个男孩成功地触碰到一颗纽扣时
he was rewarded.
他就会得到奖励
They then repeated the process in various forms.
然后他们用不同的形式重复这个过程
After 4 sessions, the boy completed all tasks
4个疗程后 男孩完成了所有的任务
and he was able to interact with way more buttons than before.
而且相较以前 他能够触摸更多纽扣
However, he felt more distressed about buttons than ever.
然而他对纽扣也感到前所未有的苦恼
When the doctors talked to the boy again
当医生再次与男孩交谈时
he revealed that he found buttons disgusting
男孩袒露道他觉得纽扣很恶心
and that they emitted a bad smell.
而且散发着难闻的气味
And so they wondered:
所以他们想知道
did the exposure therapist reduce his fear,
暴露治疗法是否减少了他的恐惧
but increase his feeling of disgust?
增加了恶心的感受
Next, they tried Imagery Exposure Therapy.
紧接着他们尝试了想象暴露疗法
For the seven sessions that followed,
在随后的七个疗程
the boy was prompted to just visualize buttons falling on him
医生提示男孩想象纽扣落在身上的情景
and imagine how they looked, felt, and smelled.
想象那些纽扣的外观 触感和气味
This time the boy’s self-reported levels of distress reduced dramatically.
这一次男孩报告的痛苦程度显著下降
Even 12-months after the therapy
甚至在治疗后的12个月里
the boy reported minimal fear of buttons.
男孩对纽扣的恐惧都很小
So why did the first treatment fail,
所以为什么第一阶段的治疗失败
while the second one worked?
而第二阶段的治疗却奏效呢
The first treatment changed the minds’ expectations
第一次治疗改变了大脑对于无害纽扣
of what harmless buttons may triggers classical conditioning.
可能会触发经典条件反射的期望
The second therapy changed the mind’s evaluation of buttons themselves
第二种疗法改变了大脑对于纽扣的评价
that they aren’t actually that disgusting.
即纽扣并没有那么恶心
In technical terms, expectancy-learning failed,
用专业术语来说是期望学习失败了
but evaluative learning, succeeded.
但评价性学习成功了
But treatment of a phobia may take many forms.
但恐惧症的学习可能有多重形式
Social- and agoraphobia
社交恐惧症和广场恐惧症
are often treated with counseling or even medication.
通常通过咨询 甚至是药物来治疗
Specific phobias are often treated by systematic desensitization,
特定恐惧症通常通过系统脱敏来治疗
today often with the help of virtual reality.
今天常借助虚拟现实的帮助
Humor is another serious therapy that often works.
幽默是另一种时常有效的严肃治疗法
Activities that elicit humor with the feared situation
在恐惧的场景下引发幽默的活动
can help reduce disgust, anxiety
可以帮助减少恶心 焦虑
or whatever other uncovered feelings may be
任何其他未被发现的感觉都可能是
the cause of our phobia.
我们恐惧的原因
What’s your experience with phobia?
你有过恐惧症吗
Have you ever had one that you were able to overcome?
你曾有过一个你能够克服的困难吗
And if so, how did you do it?
如果有 你是如何克服的
Share your thoughts in the comments below.
在下方的评论区分享你的想法
This and all other Sprouts’ videos
本视频及其他系列视频
are licensed under the Creative Commons.
都在知识共享协议下获得授权
That means teachers from all around the world
意味着世界各地的老师
can use them in classrooms,
都能在课堂上播放
online courses or to start projects
用作课程或开始讨论
and today, thousands already do!
今天上千个视频已经做到了
To learn how it works and download this video
想学习原理 下载本视频
without Ads or background music,
没有任何广告和背景音乐
checkout our website or read the description below.
查看我们的网站 阅读以下说明
If you want to support our mission
如果你想支持我们的课程
and help change education
帮助改变教育
visit our Patreon
浏览我们的网站
that’s patreon.com/sprouts.
即patreon官网

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视频概述

你曾有过恐惧症吗?本视频为我们介绍了三种恐惧症,并为我们剖析了一个经典案例,纽扣男孩,由此引申出对恐惧症的治疗和思考,带给我们启发,快来看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Polaristear

审核员

审核员EL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UITwU58PR5Q

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