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核能解释第二集:核能很可怕的3个原因 – 译学馆
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核能解释第二集:核能很可怕的3个原因

3 Reasons Why Nuclear Energy Is Terrible! 2/3

三个原因告诉我们为什么应该停止使用核能。
Three reasons why we should stop using nuclear energy.
一:核武器扩散。
One: nuclear weapons proliferation.
核能技术像暴力入口登上了世界舞台:
Nuclear technology made a violent entrance onto the world stage:
仅仅在人类第一次核爆炸实验的一年后
just one year after the world’s first ever nuclear test explosion in 1944,
两个核弹就毁灭了两个大城市。
two large cities were destroyed by just two single bombs.
在那之后,核反应堆技术发展缓慢,
After that, reactor technology slowly evolved
即使作为发电的一种手段,
as a means of generating electricity,
它一直和核武器技术密切相关。
but it’s always been intimately connected with nuclear weapons technology.
因为没有反应堆的技术,
It’s nearly impossible to develop nuclear weapons
就几乎不可能生产核弹。
without access to reactor technology.
事实上,《不扩散核武器条约》的目的
In fact, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty serves the purpose of
就在于核反应堆技术的推广,和不扩散核武器,
spreading nuclear reactor technology without spreading nuclear weapons
但只取得了很少的成功。
with limited success.
40年来,五个国家已经在核反应堆的帮助下开发出了
In 40 years, five countries have developed their own weapons
自己的核武器。
with the help of reactor technology.
事实上,很难区分
The fact of the matter is that it can be very hard to distinguish
这个国家到底是秘密研制核武器还是和平利用核能,建造核电站。
a covert nuclear weapons program from the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
在1970年代,核大国愉快地给小国家出售和平的核技术,
In the 1970s, the big nuclear powers were happily selling peaceful technology
但随后小国却发展出自己的核武器。
to smaller countries, which then developed weapons of their own.
致命的核武器总是建造和平的核反应堆的结果。
The road to deadly nuclear weapons is always paved with peaceful reactors.
二:核废料和污染。
Two: nuclear waste and pollution.
核燃料不仅有放射性,也包含
Spent nuclear fuel is not only radioactive, but also contains
像钚一样的剧毒元素。
extremely poisonous chemical elements like plutonium.
在接下来的几千年里,他们会缓慢地释放有毒物质。
It loses its harmfulness only slowly over several tens of thousands of years.
还有一个过程被称为后处理,这意味着
And there is also a process called reprocessing, which means
要从核废料中提取钚。
the extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
它可以用于两个目的:
It can be used for two purposes:
制造核武器或使用它作为新的燃料。
to build nuclear weapons or to use it as new fuel.
但钚几乎没有被再次用作燃料,因为我们没有
But hardly any of it is used as fuel, because we don’t have
合适钚的核反应堆。
the right kind of reactors for that.
但一毫克的钚就能杀了你,几公斤的钚可以制造原子弹,
A milligram will kill you; a few kilograms make an atomic bomb; and even
甚至一个像德国一样不显眼的国家都堆满了几十吨核废料,
an inconspicuous country like Germany literally has tons of the stuff
因为后处理几十年前听起来像一个好主意现在可没人这么干了。
just lying around, because reprocessing sounded like a good idea decades ago.
最终所有的废料怎么处理呢?
And where will all the waste go?
自从禁止向海洋中倾倒核废料后,我们便试图埋葬他们——
After dumping it into the ocean was forbidden, we’ve tried to bury it—
但是我们很难找到一个地方能
but we can’t find a place where it will definitely stay secure
安全地存放几千年。
for tens of thousands of years.
30多个国家经营近400座核反应堆,管理
Over 30 countries operate nearly 400 reactors, managing
着成千上万吨的核废料,
several hundred thousands of tons of nuclear waste
但只有一个国家目前正在认真考虑
and only one is currently serious about opening
永久的废料保存仓库——芬兰。
a permanent civilian waste storage: tiny Finland.
三:意外和灾难。
Three: accidents and disasters.
经过60年核能的使用,在反应堆和处理核废料的设施中
Over 60 years of nuclear power usage, there have been seven major accidents
主要有七个问题。
in reactors or facilities dealing with nuclear waste.
其中有三个基本已被控制,但另外四个还值得关注
Three of those were mostly contained, but four of them released significant
大量的放射性物质进入环境——
amounts of radioactivity into the environment.
1957年、1987年和2011年,在俄罗斯,乌克兰和日本有大量的土地被污染,
In 1957, 1987, and 2011, large areas of land in Russia, Ukraine, and Japan
在数十年内再也不适合人类居住。
were rendered unfit for human habitation for decades to come.
死亡的人数还有激烈的争议,但可能数以千计。
The number of deaths is highly disputed, but probably lies in the thousands.
这些灾难发生在不同类型的核反应堆,
These disasters happened with nuclear reactors of very different types,
发生在不同的国家,数十年之内相继发生。
in very different countries, and several decades apart.
看着这些数字,我们不妨问问自己,
Looking at the numbers, we may as well ask ourselves,
仅仅全球10%的电力提供
“Are 10% of the world’s energy supply
值得每30年一场巨大的灾难吗?
worth a devastating disaster every 30 years?
就算能提供全球30%的电力,我们还愿意每十年
Would 30% be worth another Fukushima or Chernobyl
就在一个地方重蹈覆辙吗?
somewhere on Earth every 10 years?
还要到什么时候哪片土地被污染了,我们才能停止吗?
What area would have to be contaminated so we say ‘no more’?
我们的底线在哪里?
Where is the line?”
所以,我们还应该使用核能吗?
So, should we use nuclear energy?
我们所冒的危险大于利益,或许我们应该
The risks may outweigh the benefits, and maybe we should
停止研究核能,并把这个技术用在更好的地方。
stop looking into this direction and drop this technology for good.
如果你想听到的另一边的论点,
If you want to hear the other side of the argument
或简短的核能介绍,请点击这里。
or a short introduction to nuclear energy, click here.
我们的通道有一个新的赞助商:Audible.com。
Our channel has a new sponsor: Audible.com.
如果你使用URL
If you use the URL <http://audible.com/nutshell>,
你可以得到一个免费有声读物并同时支持我们的频道。
you can get a free audiobook and support our channel.
我们的视频制作需要大量的时间,
Producing our videos takes a lot of time,
我们补充了很多有声读物的疏漏之处。
and we fill a lot of it by listening to audiobooks.
我们推介一个很有趣的书,
For a really entertaining book, we recommend
Jon Krakauer写的«Into Thin Air»
“Into Thin Air” by Jon Krakauer.
他是一个伟大的作家,内容来自真正的故事。
He’s a great writer, and the story is really absorbing and true.
你可以在http://audible. com/nutshell免费获得这本书
Go to <http://audible.com/nutshell> to get the book for free.
感谢大家支持我们的频道。
Thanks a lot to Audible for supporting our channel
感谢您的收看,中文字幕由cindy≡baby提供,感谢大家的观赏!
and to you for watching!Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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