We all know that saving is important
and is something that we should be doing.
可是 总的来说 我们在这方面做的越来越少
And yet, overall, we’re doingless and less of it.
[The Way We Work]
We know what we need to do.
The question is: How do we do it?
And that’s what I’m here to teach you.
Your savings behaviorisn’t a question of how smart you are
or how much willpower you have.
The amount we save dependson the environmental cues around us.
Let me give you an example.
We ran a study in which, in one group,
we showed peopletheir income on a monthly basis.
In another group, we showed people their income on a weekly basis.
And what we found was
that people who saw their income on a weekly basis
were able to budget betterthroughout the month.
Now it’s important to know
that we didn’t change how much money people were receiving,
we just changed the environmentin which they understood their income.
And environmental cueslike this have an impact.
那么 鉴于你已经知道了 我就不再赘述了
So I’m not going to share tricks with you that you already know.
I’m not going to tell you how to open up a savings account
or how to start savingfor your retirement.
What I am going to share with you is
how to bridge this gap from your intentions to save and your actions.
Are you ready?
Here’s number one: harness the power of pre-commitment.
Fundamentally,we think about ourselvesin two different ways:
our present self and our future self.
In the future, we’re perfect.
In the future, we’re going tosave for retirement,
we’re going to lose weight, we’re going to call our parents more.
But we oftentimes forgetthat our future self
is exactly the same personas our present self.
We know that one of the best times to save is when you get your tax return.
So we tried an A/B test.
In the first group, we texted peoplein early February,
hopefully beforethey even filed for their taxes.
And we asked them, “ If you get a tax refund,
what percentage would you like to save?”
Now this is a really hard question.
They didn’t know if they would receive a tax refund or how much.
But we asked the question anyway.
In the second group,
we asked people right after they received their refund,
“What percentage would you like to save?”
Now,here’s what happened.
In that second condition, when peoplejust received their tax refund,
they wanted to save about 17 percentof their tax refund.
But in the condition when we asked people before they even filed their taxes,
savings rates increasedfrom 17 percent to 27 percent when we asked in February.
Why? Because you’re committingfor your future self,
and of course your future selfcan save 27 percent.
These large changes in savings behavior
came from the fact that we changedthe decision-making environment.
We want you to be ableto harness that same power.
So take a moment and think about the ways
in which you can sign up your future self
for something that you know today will be a little bit hard.
Sign up for an app that lets you make savings decisions in advance.
The trick is, you have to havethat binding contract.
Number two: use transition momentsto your advantage.
We did an experiment with a website that helps older adults share their housing.
We ran two ads on social media,
targeted to the same population of 64-year-olds.
在一组中 我们说“”嗨 你正在变老
In one group, we said,”Hey, you’re getting older.
Are you ready for retirement?
House sharing can help.”
In the second group,we got a little bit more specific
and said,”You’re 64 turning 65.
Are you ready for retirement?
House sharing can help.”
What we’re doing in that second group is highlighting that a transition is happening.
All of a sudden, we saw click-through rates,
and ultimately sign-up rates, increase when we highlight that.
In psychology, we call thisthe”fresh start effect.”
Whether it’s the start of a new year or even a new season,
your motivation to act increases.
So right now, put a meetingrequest on your calendar
for the day before your next birthday.
Identify the one financial thingyou most want to do.
And commit yourself to it.
The third and final trick: get a handle on small, frequent purchases.
We’ve run a few different studies
and found that the number one purchase people say they regret,
after bank fees, is eating out.
It’s a frequent purchasewe make almost every day,
and it’s death by a thousand cuts.
A coffee here, a burrito there…
It adds up and decreasesour ability to save.
Back when I lived in New York City,
I looked at my expenses and saw that I spent over 2,000 dollars on ride-sharing apps.
It was more than my New York City rent.
I vowed to make a change.
And the next month,I spent 2,000 dollars again —
no change, because the informationalone didn’t change my behavior.
I didn’t change my environment.
So now that I was 4,000 dollars in the hole,
I did two things.
The first is that I unlinkedmy credit card
from my car-sharing apps. Instead,
I linked a debit card that only had 300 dollars a month.
If I needed more,
I had to go through the whole process of adding a new card,
而且我们知道 每次点击 每个障碍 都会改变我们的行为
and we know that every click,every barrier, changes our behavior.
We aren’t machines.
We don’t carry around an abacus every day,
adding up what we’re spending,in comparison to what we wanted.
But what our brains are very good at
is counting up the number of timeswe’ve done something.
So I gave myself a limit.
I can only use ride-sharing appsthree times a week.
It forced me to ration my travels.
I got a handle on my car-sharing expenses to the benefit of my husband,
because of the environmentalchanges that I did.
所以 不管买什么东西 都要搞清楚
So get a handle on whateverthat purchase is for you,
and change your environmentto make it harder to do so.
Those are my tips for you.
But I want you to remember one thing.
As human beings,
当涉及储蓄 消费 做预算时 我们可能是非理性的
we can be irrational when it comes to saving and spending and budgeting.
But luckily, we know this about ourselves,
and we can predict how we’ll actunder certain environments.
Let’s do that with saving.
Let’s change our environmentto help our future selves.