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三个心理学技巧帮你省下一笔

3 psychological tricks to help you save money | The Way We Work, a TED series

我们都知道储蓄很重要
We all know that saving is important
而且这正是我们该做的事儿
and is something that we should be doing.
可是 总的来说 我们在这方面做的越来越少
And yet, overall, we’re doingless and less of it.
我们工作的方法
[The Way We Work]
我们知道自己要做什么
We know what we need to do.
问题是:怎样做呢
The question is: How do we do it?
那正是我在这儿要讲的
And that’s what I’m here to teach you.
你的储蓄行为并不在于你有多聪明
Your savings behaviorisn’t a question of how smart you are
或是有多么强的意愿
or how much willpower you have.
我们储蓄的总额取决于我们周围的诱因
The amount we save dependson the environmental cues around us.
我给大家举个例子吧
Let me give you an example.
我们研究了一项课题 在一个小组中
We ran a study in which, in one group,
我们按月向人们支付报酬
we showed peopletheir income on a monthly basis.
在另一个小组 我们每周支付报酬
In another group, we showed people their income on a weekly basis.
我们发现
And what we found was
那些每周拿到报酬的人
that people who saw their income on a weekly basis
在整个月内把预算做的更好
were able to budget betterthroughout the month.
记住 我们并没有改变人们得到酬劳的金额
Now it’s important to know
这一点很重要
that we didn’t change how much money people were receiving,
我们只是改变了他们理解自己收入的环境
we just changed the environmentin which they understood their income.
而且像这样的环境诱因会产生一定的影响
And environmental cueslike this have an impact.
那么 鉴于你已经知道了 我就不再赘述了
So I’m not going to share tricks with you that you already know.
我不会跟你说 如何开一个储蓄账户
I’m not going to tell you how to open up a savings account
或如何开始储蓄你的退休金
or how to start savingfor your retirement.
我打算分享给你的是
What I am going to share with you is
如何在你的意愿 储蓄及行动力之间架起桥梁
how to bridge this gap from your intentions to save and your actions.
准备好了吗
Are you ready?
第一 利用事前承诺的权利
Here’s number one: harness the power of pre-commitment.
从根本上说 我们用两种不同的方式自我思考:
Fundamentally,we think about ourselvesin two different ways:
当下的自己以及未来的自己
our present self and our future self.
在未来 我们是完美的
In the future, we’re perfect.
在未来 我们会储蓄退休金
In the future, we’re going tosave for retirement,
我们会减肥 会多给父母打电话
we’re going to lose weight, we’re going to call our parents more.
但我们时常忘记未来的自己
But we oftentimes forgetthat our future self
和当下的自己正是同一个人
is exactly the same personas our present self.
我们知道 储蓄最好的时机之一就是拿到纳税申报表时
We know that one of the best times to save is when you get your tax return.
我们试过A/B两种测试
So we tried an A/B test.
在第一组 我们在二月初给人们发信息
In the first group, we texted peoplein early February,
很有可能刚好在他们报税之前
hopefully beforethey even filed for their taxes.
而且我们问他们“如果收到退税款
And we asked them, “ If you get a tax refund,
你会拿出多大比例来储蓄呢”
what percentage would you like to save?”
这确实很难回答
Now this is a really hard question.
他们并不知道自己是否能收到退税或收到多少
They didn’t know if they would receive a tax refund or how much.
但不管怎样 我们还是这么问了
But we asked the question anyway.
在第二组中
In the second group,
我们在他们刚刚收到退税款时问到
we asked people right after they received their refund,
“你会拿出多少来储蓄呢”
“What percentage would you like to save?”
这儿就是所发生的
Now,here’s what happened.
在第二种情况 人们刚收到他们的退税时
In that second condition, when peoplejust received their tax refund,
他们想储蓄退税款的17%
they wanted to save about 17 percentof their tax refund.
但当我们在他们报税前问这个问题时
But in the condition when we asked people before they even filed their taxes,
储蓄率从2月份的17%增长到了27%
savings rates increasedfrom 17 percent to 27 percent when we asked in February.
为什么呢 因为你正在为未来的自己而努力
Why? Because you’re committingfor your future self,
当然 未来的你可以储蓄27%
and of course your future selfcan save 27 percent.
这些储蓄行为上大的改变
These large changes in savings behavior
来自于我们改变了做决定的环境这样一个事实
came from the fact that we changedthe decision-making environment.
我们希望你能够驾驭同样的能力
We want you to be ableto harness that same power.
花些时间 想想这些方法
So take a moment and think about the ways
你可以为未来的自己报名
in which you can sign up your future self
参加些今天看来会有些艰辛的活动
for something that you know today will be a little bit hard.
下一个App可以让你提前作出储蓄的决定
Sign up for an app that lets you make savings decisions in advance.
窍门就是 你必须有具有约束力的合同
The trick is, you have to havethat binding contract.
第二:利用好过渡期
Number two: use transition momentsto your advantage.
我们利用网站做了一项实验以帮助老年人共享他们的住房
We did an experiment with a website that helps older adults share their housing.
我们在社交媒体上打了两个广告
We ran two ads on social media,
目标都瞄准64岁人群
targeted to the same population of 64-year-olds.
在一组中 我们说“”嗨 你正在变老
In one group, we said,”Hey, you’re getting older.
你准备好退休了吗
Are you ready for retirement?
房屋分享能帮到你”
House sharing can help.”
在第二组 我们搞了点特殊的
In the second group,we got a little bit more specific
说道:“你64了 马上就65了
and said,”You’re 64 turning 65.
你准备好退休了吗
Are you ready for retirement?
房屋分享可以帮你”
House sharing can help.”
我们在第二组做的就是 凸显转变正在发生
What we’re doing in that second group is highlighting that a transition is happening.
突然间 我们看到点击率
All of a sudden, we saw click-through rates,
和注册率在我们凸显这种转变时都提高了
and ultimately sign-up rates, increase when we highlight that.
在心理学上 我们称之为“起始效应”
In psychology, we call thisthe”fresh start effect.”
无论是新年伊始 还是新一季的开始
Whether it’s the start of a new year or even a new season,
你行动的积极性都会提高的
your motivation to act increases.
所以此刻 在你下一次生日前
So right now, put a meetingrequest on your calendar
在日历上备注自己所希冀的
for the day before your next birthday.
确定这是你最想做的财务事宜
Identify the one financial thingyou most want to do.
全身心的投入
And commit yourself to it.
第三个窍门:处理琐碎的 经常性的开销
The third and final trick: get a handle on small, frequent purchases.
我们开展过一些不同的课题
We’ve run a few different studies
发现人们说他们最后悔的开销
and found that the number one purchase people say they regret,
排在银行手续费后面的 就是外出就餐
after bank fees, is eating out.
这几乎是我们每天都会作出的经常性的消费
It’s a frequent purchasewe make almost every day,
这简直是千刀万剐
and it’s death by a thousand cuts.
咖啡 玉米煎饼…
A coffee here, a burrito there…
这些加起来就降低了我们储蓄的能力
It adds up and decreasesour ability to save.
回到当初我曾居住的纽约
Back when I lived in New York City,
我盯着自己的开支 看到自己花了2000美元在拼车上
I looked at my expenses and saw that I spent over 2,000 dollars on ride-sharing apps.
这高于我在纽约的房租
It was more than my New York City rent.
我发誓要做出改变
I vowed to make a change.
接下来一个月 我又花了2000美金
And the next month,I spent 2,000 dollars again —
毫无改变 因为信息本身并没有改变我的行为
no change, because the informationalone didn’t change my behavior.
我也没有改变自己的环境
I didn’t change my environment.
所以到现在 我在这个窟窿上填了4000美元
So now that I was 4,000 dollars in the hole,
我做了两件事
I did two things.
第一 从我的汽车共享App上取消绑定信用卡
The first is that I unlinkedmy credit card
作为替代
from my car-sharing apps. Instead,
我绑定了一张每月只放300元的借记卡
I linked a debit card that only had 300 dollars a month.
如果需要更多
If I needed more,
我就必须搞定添加新卡的整个流程
I had to go through the whole process of adding a new card,
而且我们知道 每次点击 每个障碍 都会改变我们的行为
and we know that every click,every barrier, changes our behavior.
我们不是机器
We aren’t machines.
我们不会每天带着算盘四处游走
We don’t carry around an abacus every day,
把我们花的钱与我们希望的加起来
adding up what we’re spending,in comparison to what we wanted.
但我们的大脑
But what our brains are very good at
善于把我们做过的某些事联系起来
is counting up the number of timeswe’ve done something.
于是我给自己设了一个限度
So I gave myself a limit.
每周只可以用三次拼车app
I can only use ride-sharing appsthree times a week.
这迫使我合理安排自己的出行
It forced me to ration my travels.
为我丈夫考虑 我掌握了共享汽车的经验
I got a handle on my car-sharing expenses to the benefit of my husband,
由于环境的改变我才这么做的
because of the environmentalchanges that I did.
所以 不管买什么东西 都要搞清楚
So get a handle on whateverthat purchase is for you,
并且 改变你的环境使之更难做到
and change your environmentto make it harder to do so.
这些就是我给你的小窍门
Those are my tips for you.
但我希望你能记住一件事
But I want you to remember one thing.
作为一个人
As human beings,
当涉及储蓄 消费 做预算时 我们可能是非理性的
we can be irrational when it comes to saving and spending and budgeting.
但幸运的是 我们了解自己
But luckily, we know this about ourselves,
我们可以预测在特定环境下 自己的表现
and we can predict how we’ll actunder certain environments.
我们用储蓄来做到这点吧
Let’s do that with saving.
我们来改变自身环境以帮助未来的自己吧
Let’s change our environmentto help our future selves.

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