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天文学家告诉你“地球为什么是圆的而不是平的” – 译学馆
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天文学家告诉你“地球为什么是圆的而不是平的”

3 proofs that debunk flat-Earth theory | Big Think Top Ten 2018 | Michelle Thaller

问问天文学家
是否有证据表明地球是圆的——奥斯卡
奥斯卡 你提的这个问题:
So, Oscar, you asked the question,
“你能用哪些最简单的方法来证明地球是圆的”
”What are some of the easiest ways that you can prove that the earth is round.
显然这是我们正在讨论的事情
Because apparently this is something that we’re debating,
我也说不上来
I have no idea why.
即使是开始讨论它也是很难的
That’s a hard thing for me to even start talking about,
因为有太多的证据证明地球是圆的
because there are so many proofs that the earth is round
不知道该从何说起
it’s difficult to know where to start.
而且认为地球是平的也不太恰当
And it’s not okay to think that the Earth is flat.
这没有什么值得争论的
This is not a viable argument.
我有朋友去过国际太空站
I have friends who have been to a international speace station.
他们每90分钟绕地球转一圈
They have orbited the Earth once every 90 minutes
我和上过太空的人有过共处经历
I’ve had personal experience with people that have been up in space
他们亲眼看到了地球是圆的
and can see with their own eyes that the Earth is round.
当然 我们也在太空拍下了令人震撼的照片
And of course, we’ve taken all of these amazing pictures from space;
拍摄的所有的地球照片都非常的漂亮
they’re so beautiful, all those pictures of the Earth.
因此 我现在真不知道“地球扁平论”
So I don’t really know what’s going on right now
是怎么得来的
with this’Earth is flat’ thing,
但我会告诉你 而且这也是我教授天文学最享受的事情之一
but I will tell you that this is one of the things I really enjoyed teaching my own astronomy class about
因为证据到处都是
because there are proofs all around you.
知道地球是圆的并不困难
It is not difficult to know that the Earth is round.
事实上 人类在2000多年前就已经知道这件事了
In fact, people have known of this for way more than 2,000 years.
实际上 古希腊人有许多非常奇妙的
The ancient Greeks actually had a number of really elegant,
很好的证据证明地球是一个球体
wonderful proofs that the earth was a sphere.
我们由浅入深地来解释这件事
So let’s start from the simple to the slightlymore complicated.
有一件事你可以拿望远镜亲自体验一下
One of the things you can see yourself with a pair of binoculars,
那就是如果你去一个湖
Is if you actually go out to a lake
湖上有些船
Thear are boats on it
船行驶的越远
the farther away a boat is
船的底部就会消失得越多
the more the bottom of the boat will disappear,
然后你大概也就只能看见船的桅杆了
and you’ll basically just see the mast of the boat.
当一艘船越驶越远
And as a boat goes farther and farther away
你看到的船的最后一个部分就是它的桅杆
the last thing you will see is the very top of the mast of that boat,
这是因为船实际上正驶过弯曲的地平线——
and that’s because the boat is actually going over the horizon that’s curved—
这也就意味着 当它越驶越远时
and that means that as it goes farther and farther away
你看到的船身部分就会逐渐减少
you see less and less of the bottom of it,
而大多就是船的顶部
and more of the top of that.
你用双筒望远镜可以很容易在海边或湖边观察到这种现象
You can see that with binoculars by an ocean, by a lake, it’s really easy.
如果地球是平的 这种事情则不会发生
That wouldn’t happen if the Earth were flat—
随着船越驶越远 你只会看到船变得越来越小
you would simply see the boat getting smaller and smaller and smaller as it went farther away,
但是你还是能够成比例地
but you’d be able to see the whole thing
看到整个船体
with the same proportions.
目前 另一个证明地球是球体的方式
Now,another way that you can tell that we’re on a sphere
就是想想我们地球上有一个叫热带的地区
is to think about how there’s something called the tropics on the Earth,
并且热带在赤道附近区域 那儿的太阳有时会在人们头顶的正上方
and the tropics are places near the equator of the earth where sometimes the sun is overhead in the sky.
这是2000年前的希腊人真实使用过的证据
And this was actually something that the Greeks used,
不仅用来证明地球是圆的
not only to prove that the Earth was round about 2000 years ago,
而且他们还测出了地球的周长
but they actually measured the circumference of the Earth,
误差只有百分之几
accurate to within just a couple percent.
2000年前我们就已经知道地球是圆的
2,000 years ago we’ve known that the Earthwas round.
那时有个非常聪明的希腊科学家叫艾尔托斯蒂尼
There was a really brilliant Greek scientist called Eratosthenes,
他注意到 在一个叫作塞尼的小镇
and Eratosthenes noticed that there was a town called Syene,
太阳光会在特定的日期
and on a certain date the sun would actually shine
直射到井的底部
straight down to the bottom of a well.
这意味着太阳在人的正头顶
That meant the sun was directly overhead;
你从井口往下看
you could look down a well
太阳光能反射回来
and see the sun shining back at you.
但是在同一天里
And on the very same date,
在距这里很远的城市亚历山大 并没有这种现象
farther away in the city of Alexandria, that didn’t happen
这是因为太阳不是在人们的正上方
The sun was not directly overhead,
它偏离了一个微小的角度 艾尔托斯蒂尼做的
it was a slight angle, and all that Eratosthenes
就是测量了各地太阳的不同角度
did was he measured the difference in the angle of the sun.
在塞尼镇 太阳就在人们的正上方
It was straight overhead in Syene;
在亚历山大 太阳则比正上方偏了一些
in Alexandria it was a little bit less than overhead, and
据此 他提出太阳角度随着不同城市的变化
he rationed that that change in angle from one city to another
可能表明我们处在一个曲面上
was probably indicative of us being on a curved surface,
而且你可以在这两个城市间进行各种观测
and you could make all kinds of measurements even between those two cities
能看到太阳角度是不同的 ——也就是在天空中 太阳的位置是不同的
and see that the angles were different—the sun was at a different place in the sky.
利用这些 他准确地测量出地球的周长
Using this, he actually measured the circumference of the Earth,
并在2000年以前得到了正确的数据
and he got it right 2,000 years ago.
另一个很简单的证据就是在给定的日期
So another really simple proof is that on any given date,
世界上不同的城市和不同的地方
at different cities and different places around the world,
太阳在天空的角度也各不相同
the sun is at different angles in the sky.
若地球不是圆的 这样的事不会发生
That wouldn’t happen if the Earth wasn’t round.
还有其他一些证据 虽然很模糊 但它们都是真实的 确实很可爱
Then there are some other proofs that are a little more obscure, but they’re actually really lovely.
一种是观察月食发生时的情况
One is to observe what happens during a lunareclipse.
当地球在月球上投下阴影时 月食就发生了
Now,a lunar eclipse happens when the Earth casts a shadow on the moon.
月球实际上变暗了 事实上 如果你看过月食
The moon actually goes dark, in fact, if you’ve seen one
你就能看到地球的阴影覆盖月球
you can actually see the Earth’s shadow go across the moon,
当月球完全处在地球的阴影中时
and when the moon is entirely in the Earth’s shadow the moon
月球看起来会有点暗 甚至有点红 这种场景真的很美
looks kind of dark and even kind of red-colored; it’s really, really beautiful.
在这种情况下
What’s happening, in that case,
太阳在地球的一侧 地球在日月中间
is that the sun is on one side of the Earth—the Earth is in the middle
地球在月球上投下一个阴影
and the Earth is casting a shadow on the moon,
当阴影盖过月球时
and as the shadow moves
你会观察到阴影是弯曲的 地球是圆的
across the moon you’ll notice that the shadow is curved, it’s round.
像太阳这种比地球大的东西
So something like the sun that’s bigger than the Earth
能够在月球上投射地球的阴影
and is able to cast a shadow of the Earth on the moon
从而真实地给你展示地球的形状
can actually show you the shape of the Earth.
你可能会说“啊哈!但地球会是盘状的吗
“Ah-ha!” you might say,”but could the Earthto be a disk?
它会不会是平坦的但形状像个圆盘而非球体?”
Could it be flat but it’s actually still shaped like a disk, not like a sphere?”
有个名叫阿里斯达克的希腊科学家 他注意到
There was a Greek scientist called Aristarchus and what he noticed
你可以在太阳所处的多个不同角度看月食
was that you can get a lunar eclipse at many different angles where the sun is;
有时阴影直接盖过月球
sometimes the shadow goes straight across the moon,
有时只是从月亮边上扫过 只会有一点点阴影 在月球的顶部或底部
sometimes it just kindof glances the moon—just a little bit is in shadow just on the top or on the bottom.
从每个不同的角度来看
From every different vantage point,
太阳投射出来的阴影
every different angle the sun is casting a shadow,
都是一个完美的弯曲的影子
you always get a perfectly curved shadow.
唯一能从任何方向投射出弯曲的
The only shape that can cast a shadow that’s curved
影子的形状 就是一个球体
from any direction you put the light is a sphere.
所以几千年来 人们一直知道地球是球形的
So people have known that the Earth is spherical for thousands of years.
说地球是平的是不对的
It’s not okay to say that the Earth is flat.
这是一种奇怪的反对意见 我不知道这种论调是从哪里来的
This is some sort of strange denial, I don’t know where it comes from,
而且我被反复问到这个问题
and it’s something where I keep getting this question.
我们真的需要把这个问题搁到一边 因为我们早已知道地球是球体了
We really need to put this question to bed because we’ve known the Earth is a sphere for a long time.
还有一些善意的人说“我真的不相信地球是平的
There’s even some well-meaning people whosay,”I don’t really believe the Earth is flat,
但我真的不确定怎么看待这件事”
but I’m not really sure what to thinkabout it.”
他们问了我一些有趣的问题
And they’ve asked me some interesting questions,
比如他们听说太空很热
like they’ve heard that space is a very hot,
当你升到大气层上方时
that when you go up above the atmosphere the temperature
太空的温度是百万度 这是真的
of space is millions of degrees, which is true.
问题是那里基本上没有空气
The problem is there’s basically no air atall.
所以地球周围的气体实际上是百万度热
So the gas right around the Earth is actually millions of degrees hot.
这是真的 但是那里几乎没有什么东西
That’s actually true, but there’s almost none of it, there’s almost nothing.
就好像单个质子在一百万度 从你身边呼啸而过的场景
Like one single proton whizzes by you at a temperature of a million degrees,
它与空气中温度的概念是不同的 完全是两回事
it’s not ‘the same as temperature in the air, it’s not the same thing at all.
这是我有时被问到的问题
So that’s one that I get sometimes.
另一件事情是 我曾对某些人说过这样的话
And the other one is—I actually said this to somebody,
‘’我不敢相信他们从来没有想过——
and I couldn’t believe they had never thought of it—
你用望远镜看到的那些行星 如土星 木星 火星
that with binoculars you can see planets, you can see Saturn and Jupiter, you can see Mars with a telescope,
以及太阳和月亮 包括你在太阳系看到的其他所有的都是球体
the sun and the moon, everything else you see in the solar system is a sphere.
难道我们的地球就是唯一不同的那个吗?
So we’re the one thing that is different?
事实上 这让那些对听到的信息更感兴趣的人们
And that actually made somebody who was more interested in actually hearing information,
能够让他们开始思考
that actually got them to think.
他们会说“你是对的…我们拍的任何物体都是球体!”
They were like,”You’re right… everythingelse we take a picture of is a sphere!”
bigthink.com(一个由一群美国高级知识分子创建 将油管和脸书结合起来的视频分享网站 邀请当代哲人及各行业领袖分享思想 并提供机会让浏览者参与论辩各类议题)

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视频概述

一位天文学家受到提问:是否有证明可论证地球是圆的?该天文学家将形象生动的比喻与古希腊科学家的论证相结合,通俗易懂地为我们解答了问题。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

疯狂吸包的马夫人

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=550q8rkh7ns

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