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这三种视觉错觉令人难以置信 – 译学馆
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这三种视觉错觉令人难以置信

3 optical illusions that exploit your visual system

近看这张图
Take a close look at this picture,
你可能会看到紫色的 橘色的心交替的图案
you’re probably seeing an alternating pattern of purple and orange hearts.
但是如果我告诉你
But, what if I told you that
其实这些心是同一个颜色呢?
those hearts are exactly the same color?
移开条纹布 就能证实这一点
You can prove this by taking away all the stripes.
那么 为什么会这样呢
So, why does this happen?
如果你放大看这张图
Well, if you zoom in on the picture,
你会发现这些条纹其实不是同色
you’ll find that the striped bars aren’t actually the same color.
周围的蓝条纹让“心”看起来像紫色
These surrounding blue bars make the heart seem purple,
周围的绿条纹让“心”看起来像橘色
whereas these surrounding green bars make the heart seem orange.
这为我们研究视觉提供了重要线索
This gives us a vital clue on how our vision works.
这说明我们看见物体的颜色
It suggests that we perceive an object’s color
并不是基于它的本色
not based on its actual color,
而是基于与周围颜色的对比
but on how it compares to the surrounding colors.
这样的错觉显示视觉系统真正的工作原理
Illusions like these expose the visual system for what it really is:
大脑处理光学信号时 使用偏倚设置
A brain using a biased set of rules to process optical signals,
从而形成视觉
the result is what we call vision.
实际上 视错觉是我们能准确指出
In fact, optical illusions are one of the few ways
这些偏倚规则的少数途径之一
we can figure out exactly what these biased rules are.
下面是另一个案例
Here’s another example:
无论你是否相信
Believe it or not,
外圈线闪烁时始终和内圈旋转的线在同一直线上
this outer line is blinking in exact alignment with the spinning line,
而现在看来 内圈线转过后 外圈线才闪烁
yet it seems as though the outer line is lagging behind the rotating line.
这就是闪光滞后效应
This is known as the flash lag effect.
这又和视觉有什么关系呢?
What does this reveal about our vision?
是的 我们活在稍微早一点的时间里
Well, turns out we’re living ever-so-slightly in the past.
当我们用眼睛看到某物时
When we see something with our eyes,
信号到达大脑
it takes a small amount of time for the signals
需要细微的时间
to reach the brain,
随后大脑处理
and then for the brain to
这些信息
process this information,
时间差约为80微秒
roughly 80 milliseconds.
所以 你能看到这一滞后效应是因为
So, the reason why you’re seeing this lag
在直线闪烁后80微秒
is because in the 80 milliseconds after the line is flashed,
旋转的线已经向前转动了一点
the rotating line has moved forward a bit.
大脑组合这些信息
Your brain incorporates this information,
因此 我们能看到旋转线领先于闪光线
and thus we see the rotating line a bit further ahead of the flashing line.
现在 这80微秒的滞后可用作其他异象
Now this 80 millisecond time lag can be exploited to produce other strange phenomenons,
在一次实验中 研究员协同按按钮
In one experiment, researchers had participants press a button
来点亮一个灯泡
that would cause a light bulb to flash.
当他们把按按钮与亮灯的时间间隔
When they reduced the delay between pressing the button
缩短至80微秒
and flashing the lights to 80 milliseconds,
同伴会说灯突然就亮了
participants would say the light bulb flashes instantaneously.
但是当间隔缩短至40微秒
But when you reduce it even more to about 40 milliseconds,
同伴会说按钮还没按
participants would say that the light bulb flashed
灯就先亮了
before they even pressed button.
这再次印证了 视觉也会骗人
Once again we see that our vision can’t fully be trusted.
接下来是最后一个视错觉
Here’s one last illusion,
盯住图片中心约20秒
focus on the center of the image for around 20 seconds,
一直盯着 不要动
keep focusing and don’t look away.
[音乐]
[music]
现在 我将给你看同一张图片的黑白照
Now, I’m about to show you the same picture but in black and white,
在我切换图片后 一定要继续看图片中心
After I switched the images it’s important to continue focusing on the center.
准备好了么 看
Ready? There.
看见彩图了么 虽然颜色渐褪
Are you seeing color? Eventually it will fade away but for that brief moment,
但有一瞬间 黑白照是彩色的
the colorless photo has color.
为什么会这样?
What’s happening here?
这是因为人眼中视椎细胞
Well, your eyes have color receptors called cones
分辨 接受红 蓝 绿三色
that detect red blue and green.
这些视椎细胞不同程度的反应让我们看见颜色
We see colors based on the different levels of activity across these cones.
例如 如果红蓝视椎细胞被“点亮”
For example, if the red and blue cones are firing a lot
而绿色没有 我们会看见紫色
and the green codes aren’t, we will see purple.
现在 当你长时间看着某一特定颜色 如紫色
Now when you stare at a particular color for too long, eg purple,
特定区域的红蓝视椎细胞
the red and the blue cones for that particular area
会疲惫 不能正常工作
gets tired and doesn’t work as well.
所以当你看这张新图时 只有绿色视椎细胞正常工作
So when you look at this new image you only have the green cones working normally.
因此 你的色觉正相反
And as such, your color vision is inverted.
事实上 图片的本色是
In fact this is what that picture looks like
你看见颜色的补色
when you invert the colors on paint.
注意看 紫树是怎么变绿的
Notice how the purple trees turn green.
这一颜色组合是你眼中
This color scheme is what you should have seen
想象后的黑白照
on the black and white after image.
总之 这些例子都体现了
Overall, these examples all show the importance of
视错觉在帮我们理解视觉系统时的重要性
optical illusions in helping us understand our visual system.
所以下次再看见视错觉
So next time you see an illusion,
尝试准确指出到底是什么
try and figure out exactly what’s going on.

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译制信息
视频概述

眼见真的为实吗?

听录译者

洛洛

翻译译者

岸雩

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCLm1PvVTY8

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