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揭秘天才的3种神话 – 译学馆
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揭秘天才的3种神话

3 Myths of Genius Debunked

关于创造力有许多神话 这些神话通常被那些
There are myths of creativity and these myths are usually propagated by people that have
富有英雄主义思想和浪漫主义思想的人们所传播。这些关于创造力的神话
romantic notions about heroes, romantic notions about eureka moments. And these myths of creativity
使人们难以合作,成为一个独行侠。研究表明
keep people from collaborating and it causes them to be a lone wolf. And the research says
这种做法往往会导致他们失败。现在我谈谈关于创造力的那些神话吧。
it causes them to fail. So let me talk a little bit about those myths of creativity. In the
在销售和营销方面我要与三个神话斗争。第一个——
world of sales and marketing I battle against three myths. Myth number one – the lone
孤独的发明家。这是危险的想法,因为根本没有单独发明家这回事。
inventor. This is very dangerous because there is no such thing as a lone inventor. As a
事实上,有很多史料已经揭露了爱因斯坦,尤其是他在发明创造方面的事。
matter of fact there’s a lot of historical research that has debunked Einstein specifically
亨利·福特,也不是一名孤独的发明家
in terms of inventions. Henry Ford. Not a lone inventor.
一个典型的例子——托马斯爱迪生。在创作团队中,爱迪生是个品牌。
A classic example – Thomas Edison. In the invention community Thomas Edison is a brand.
它代表14个人的共同成果。对,他们都有一个叫托马斯爱迪生的领袖。他的名下有一万项
It stand for 14 people. Yes there was a figurehead named Thomas Edison. His name is on 10,000
专利。他不会去发明某个单独的东西。他把人们组织到一起,而且知道如何
patents. He did not invent a single thing. He marshaled people together and knew how
恰到好处地革新,随心所欲地熬一锅富有创造力的大杂烩。
to spot innovations and put people together like a creative soup if you will. Here’s
还有个典型例子,史蒂夫乔布斯。你问问在千禧年使用苹果电子产品的普通人,
a classic example. Steve Jobs. You ask the average person, say a millennial who uses
谁是我们这个时代最伟大的发明家?他们会
a lot of Apple technology, who’s one of the greatest inventors of our time? They’ll
说是乔布斯。乔布斯曾经说过:“我从来没创造过任何东西,我只是注重模式,
say Steve Jobs. Steve Jobs once said I never created anything. All I did was notice patterns
把人们组织到一起来完成项目。”那么,思考一下。如果乔布斯没有沃兹尼亚克
and put people together to finish projects. So think about it. If he doesn’t have Wozniak
就没有最初的苹果公司。同样,如果没有埃维,就没有iPod。如果没有
there is no original Apple, right. If he doesn’t have Ive there is no iPod. If he doesn’t
托尼法德尔就没有iPhone。这样的列表数不胜数。我有一位好友,
have Tony Fadell there is no iPhone and the list goes on and on. Got a good friend of
大卫布克斯,他写了一本非常精彩的关于天才神话的书。
mine David Burkus who wrote a really wonderful book about the myths of genius. And he was
而且他告诉过我这个浪漫的概念。我还记得当我多年前第一次阅读这个调查报告,
telling me that it’s a romantic notion. And I remember when I first read this research
“没有孤独的发明家”这几个字确实伤了我的心。
years ago ‘No Lone Inventor’ it did kind of hurt my feelings.
我曾经是一个音乐家。我以为我写了很多歌曲,但根据调查报告,
I’m a musician in my past. I thought I wrote a lot of songs but according to the research
我从来没有写过一首歌。我总是与人合作创作歌曲。
I never wrote a song. I always collaborated with somebody. The song that actually made
能够出唱片和上电台的歌更是经过了15到50次完善。当我告诉戴维
it to the record and made it on the radio had 15 to 50 hands on it. When I talked to
我第一次阅读他的报告的时候被伤到了。
David I said when I read your research it kind of hurt my feelings. And he goes it’s
他说这是个浪漫的想法,因为我们都想当英雄。我们都渴望被授予Ayn Rand那样的能力。
a romantic notion because we want to be heroes. We want to be as empowered as Ayn Rand. We
我们都认为,自己才是神话的源头,这就是我讲这个故事的原因。但是
want to think that we are The Fountainhead so this is how we tell the story. But until
在你认可天才是团队的合作之前,你不会放弃控制欲。
you believe that genius is a team sport you will never give up control. And this is the
这就是销售领域很多人都有的问题。他们不想被任何销售领域外的人控制,
problem for a lot of people in sales. They don’t want to seed any level of control
因为他们认为这些人的意见不值一提。
over their process to somebody outside of sales world because they don’t value those
但研究已经清楚表明了这一点。Miller Heiman组织调查了好与极好的区别。
voices enough. But the research is clear on this. Miller Heiman Institute researched the
他们称后者为世界一流组织,也即胜利者。
difference between good and great. They call it world class organizations. They win. They
他们比紧跟其后的竞争对手多售出20%的产品。他们的共同点不过是
sell 20 percent more than their nearest competitor. The only thing they have in common is they’ve
打破了销售神话,明白每场交易都是必须迅速解决问题,
broken this myth and they understand that every deal is about rapid problem solving
而没有一个人能独立解决所有问题。
and no one person can solve the problem on their own.
很快我们说到其他二个要破解的神话是顿悟时刻。
Quickly the other two myths of creativity that must be dispelled is the eureka moment.
实际上,并没有一下子改变世界的思想。我知道这是又一个
There is no such thing as a big idea that changes the world. I know this is another
让人伤心却又正确的见解,以往的经验屡试不爽。
one of those hurtful but very true based on empirical research points. There are little
小想法汇集到一起,就可以进化为改变世界的大想法。
ideas that combine with other little ideas that improve themselves into game changing
我从某个我认为是最有创造力的人身上得到了启发。他就是爱德卡慕尔,皮克斯的董事。
ideas. And I’ve experienced this personally by who I consider one of the authorities on
我还记得几年前我站在后台,
creativity, Ed Catmull, president of Pixar. I remember standing backstage a few years
心潮澎湃地和他的副手约翰雷斯特表达我对卡慕尔的膜拜。我就像是他的
ago just gushing to him about John Lasseter, his VP of creative. I’m like he’s the
超级粉丝。他就是那个写商业片机器人总动员的人。他就是那个
bomb. This is the guy who wrote Wall-e, the commercial. This is the guy that wrote the
写玩具总动员剧本的人。你知道,他需要从玩具的角度讲故事。我记得
script for Toy Story, you know, telling the story from the toys point of view. And I remember
卡慕尔看了我一眼,阻止我说下去,免得让雷斯特不快。他说玩具总动员从刚开始是
Catmull looked at me, cut me off and not to dismiss Lasseter, he said Toy Story was a
一个有问题的想法。完全依赖电脑从头到尾制造一部片子。
problematic idea from the start. Make an entire full length feature film inside a computer.
你知道从翻译时的角度来看那有多困难吗?
Do you understand how hard that is from a rendering time standpoint?
让这些类似于人的角色成为人,这些角色甚至没有面部活动也没有技术
Make the characters as human as human. They didn’t even have facial control or technology
适用于这种情况的。我们需要从玩具的角度讲述这个故事,尽管在过去我们从未
at the time for this. And tell the story from the toys point of view when we’ve never
有过可以借鉴的经验。卡幕尔解释说
historically had a toy have any narrative for us to draw on. Catmull explained that
在一次关于迪士尼的会议之后他们离杀青只剩下九个月的时间。他们把它称作
nine months in they shut the film down after a meeting with Disney. They called it Black
黑色星期五。卡幕尔对我说了一些事情,打破了顿悟时刻的神话。
Friday. And the Catmull said something to me that shattered the myth of the eureka moment.
他说你看到的玩具总动员是在一千多个问题被完善之后的结果。它就像
Catmull said Toy Story, the movie you saw was a thousand problems solved. And it was
一道闪电。我好像明白了什么。当你与广告机构有一个百万生意的时候
like a bolt of lightning. I was like I get it. When you do a billion dollar deal in an
它并不是一个很大的思想,它是一百个问题被解决后的产物,其中有80个
ad agency. It’s not a big idea, it’s a hundred problems solved, 80 of them are inside
都存在于你的机构中。当你在销售量上步步攀升的时候,你总会碰到挫折的
your agency. As you move through every level of that sale you get obstacles in front of
这就意味着如果我们不再依赖于灵感掉落天际
you. And what this means is that if we no longer depend on the big idea to fall out
去改变我们会更多地遇见,更多地思考,更多地探究的小宇宙,我们就会
of the sky and change the world we meet more, we think more, we research more, we settle
取得进步,增加实力
with small pieces of progress that add up to momentum.
最后,第三个注定被粉碎的关于天才或创造性的神话如果你想要更加善于合作
Finally the third myth of genius or creativity that must be shattered if you want to be more
就是这个专家的神话。现在我相信参与超级营销的人们
collaborative is the myth of the expert. Now I believe in involving people in a dealstorm
就是这些问题的专家。但是你会注意到我并不想让专家
who we think are experts on the problem space. But if you notice I don’t want experts on
解决问题。因为那些令人恼火的问题的大多数优秀的解决办法都来自于
the solution space. Because most of the great solutions to vexing problems come from the
一种范围的边缘。你知道人们往往不知道他们不知道的。所以他们
edges of a domain, you know. People that don’t know what they don’t know. So they’re
不被这些错误的,使人们进行到课题的中途而后退的约束所限制
not limited by these false constraints that hold people back that are in the middle of
因此,我常喜欢思考一个问题:如果你能够和一条鱼说话-如果你可以的话
this subject. So the way I like to think about it is if you could talk to a fish – if you
如果这条鱼能回复你-如果它能的话。你走进一条在玻璃鱼缸里的鱼
could. If the fish could respond – if it could. And you walked up to a fish in a fishbowl
问它里面的水还好吗?这条鱼就会很困惑地看着你,向你问水是什么?
and you ask the fish how’s the water? The fish would look at you puzzled and ask you
这就是专家存在的问题。人们总是沉浸于
what’s water? And that’s the problem with experts. People that are so steeped in the
他们并不了解的领域,这能让他们认识到更多模式和
domain they don’t have the expansive perspective that allows them to recognize patterns and
许多实物的汇合。因为每个发明,每个解决办法,其本身就是模式或者观点的集合
convergence. Because every invention, every solution is really about pattern or convergence
所以在合作中遵守下面的准则对我们来说真的很重要
recognition. And so it’s really important for us to follow the following mantra in collaboration.
思想可源于任何地方
Ideas can come from anywhere.
事实上在超级营销中那就是我的四大关键的基本准则之一。
As a matter of fact in dealstorming that is one of my four key ground rules. It’s just
它和遵循日程办事一样重要。不要打扰你旁边的人。因为
as important as stay on agenda and don’t distract the person next to you. Because the
专家的神话问题导致你再也想不出好主意
problem with the myth of expert is it leads to not invented here dismissal of good ideas.
因此当你在开一个营销 的会议时,见到某人不太赞同
So when you’re in a dealstorm meeting and someone who’s on the edge of the domain
就给他一个例子说明。某人在脱离金融领域之后一般处理事情就像
– I’ll just give you an example. Someone out of finance that generally handles something
和会计员一样普通。他们总出现在在你其中的一个会议上因为
as mundane as revenue recognition. They come to one of your meetings because you have a
你有一个与你怎么看待这笔生意的收入或者其他的问题。你关于包装的谈话讲到
problem related to how you recognize the revenue of this deal or whatever. And you’re in
一半时候他们想出一个新奇的方法来问你
the middle of this conversation about packaging and they come up with a really novel way to
它是怎么建立的。你看着那个人,说你不知道任何
think about how it’s built. You might look at that person and say you don’t know anything
关于收费出售的事,你只是一名确认收入的分析家。我们知道账单,销量
about billing sales. You’re just a revenue recognition analyst. We know billing and sales.
你将要在会议的后半部分打败他。但你不知道他
You’re about to shut him down for the rest of the meeting. And what you don’t understand
是否有一定的教育背景。他在之前可能有相关工作经历。他可能具有
is that he may have an educational background. He may have had previous jobs. He may have
别人苦苦钻研的财政技能。他可以依赖这些专业技能反驳你
a significant other that is steeped in the billing expertise and he’s drawing upon
你告诉某人只有专家才能有深刻的想法,这些不是专家的人
all of that. The minute you tell someone only experts can weigh in with ideas, everyone
就会停止努力。以我的经验,这样会使合作失败。
who’s not an expert stops contributing. In my experience it breaks down collaboration.

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