未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

3个可能改变历史的任务

3 Missions That Could've Changed History

近些年来人们已经成功完成了许多的太空飞行任务 同时也取得了
There have been plenty of successful space missions over the years, and they’ve accomplished
一些惊人的成果
some amazing things.
比如成功登月 把漫游者号送去火星 甚至对冥王星进行了一次近距离探测飞行
We’ve been to the Moon, we’ve sent rovers to Mars, and we’ve even done a flyby of pluto.
更不用提现在正绕着地球飞行的国际空间站了
Not to mention the International Space Station orbiting Earth right now.
然而有很多飞行任务是本可以发生的
But there were more missions that could have happened.
比如那些进行了研究和开发 并可能对太空旅行的历史产生了巨大的影响的任务
Ones that were researched and developed and could have had a huge impact on the history of space travel.
如果那些太空飞行任务没被取消
If they hadn’t been canceled, that is.
比如说探索火星
Take Mars, for example.
最近 美国宇航局一直在致力于第一次登陆火星的载人飞行计划
Lately, NASA’s been working on plans for the first manned mission to Mars.
如果我们早在20世纪80年代就已经去过的话会怎么样呢?
But what if we’d gone there in the 1980s?
当NASA成功地把人送去月球后 下一步把人送去火星看上去理所当然
Once NASA had sent humans to the Moon, sending people to Mars seemed like the natural next step.
但我们的火箭并不能胜任这一工作
But our rockets weren’t really up for the job.
在那时火箭多数使用的是化学燃料 比如煤油和氧气
Most of the rockets at the time burned chemicals like kerosene and oxygen.
虽然这些火箭能很好的完成饶轨飞行或是月球探索任务 但它们却没有
Even though these rockets were great for orbital or lunar missions, they just didn’t have
足够的能量用以抵达火星 去火星可是比去月球多
enough power for a trip to Mars, which is more than 50 million kilometers longer than
50万公里的路程
the journey to the moon.
所以NASA启动了Project Rover为了创造出核动力火箭
So NASA started Project Rover, to create rockets powered by nuclear reactors.
Project Rover使用了一种类似氢的反应液 它能够轻易地和大多数
Project Rover would use a reactive fluid like hydrogen — which combines easily with most
其他元素混合 通过反应器将其加热成电离气体 即等离子气体
other elements — and use a reactor to heat it into an ionized gas, aka plasma.
从火箭尾部喷射出等离子气体反作用力提供了火箭
The plasma would then be ejected from the rocket, creating thrust to push the rocket
前进的动力
forward.
传统的燃料火箭虽然也以喷射气体的反作用作为推力 但比起原子反应堆提供的
Traditional chemical rockets also eject gas for thrust, but with much less force than
推力要小的多
a nuclear reactor.
在1961年 核反应堆的研究成为了新计划-涅尔瓦涅尔瓦引擎中的一部分
In 1961, this nuclear rocket research became part of a new program that came this close
这一计划将很快使登陆火星变为可能
to taking us to Mars: the NERVA engine.
早期涅尔瓦的测试结果很成功以至于人们都已经打算在1981年搭载12人
Early NERVA tests were so successful that a mission to send 12 people to Mars was suggested
登陆火星
for 1981.
这任务计划把全员平均分配在二个火箭中 每个用三个涅尔瓦引擎为它们提供动力
The mission would split crew between two rockets, each powered by three NERVA engines, and would
并预计花费六个月到达火星
take nine months to reach the planet.
之后的引擎测试也进行的相当好 很快涅尔瓦引擎满足了NASA所需的
Engine tests continued to go really well, and soon the NERVA engine could meet almost
绝大多数要求
every NASA requirement!
……但是后来这项计划就被取消了
…but then the project was canceled.
在1972年 国会认为火星计划太过于昂贵
In 1972, Congress decided that a Mars mission would be too expensive and would extend the
并且可能会加剧美国与前苏联之间的太空竞赛
pricey space race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
所以 几乎在50年之后的今天 我们仍在等待着登陆火星的第一人
So, almost 50 years later, we’re still waiting for the first people to land on Mars.
同样20世纪60年代 前苏联也致力于N计划-通过建造巨型航天火箭
Also during the 1960s, the Soviet Union started working on a huge rocket to send crews to
把人送去火星和金星
Mars and Venus: the N1.
N1计划发射TMK号 这名字象征着俄罗斯的一句习语 大致意思为
The N1 would launch the TMK, which stands for a Russian phrase that basically means
巨型星际飞船-一个再合适不过的名字
Heavy Interplanetary Spaceship — a very accurate name.
TMK原定搭载三名宇航员并去拜访每一个作为地球邻居的行星
The TMK was supposed to take three cosmonauts to fly by each of our next-door neighbor planets.
除了配有起居舱外 TMK还配有一个能
Besides having crew quarters, the TMK would also have an instrumental module that doubled
屏蔽辐射的场所
as a radiation shield.
据说它还能够通过飞船的自转产生重力
It was even supposed to have artificial gravity caused by the ship’s rotation.
在当时是一个超前的设想!
It was way ahead of its time!
计划在1971年进行一次为期2-3年的火星任务 并在这之后有一个金星任务
A 2-3 year mission to Mars was planned for 1971, with a Venus mission some time afterward.
宇航员不会登陆或做其他事 但是他们会做饶轨飞行并将无人探测器
Cosmonauts wouldn’t land or anything, but they’d fly by the planets and drop unmanned
投放到星球表面
probes to the surface.
但是当NASA把更多精力投入到阿波罗计划后 TMK号最开始的飞行计划
But the TMK, and its potential missions were abandoned once NASA became more involved in
取消了
the Apollo program.
前苏联不再把火星和金星当作目标 开始尝试用N1登月
Instead of aiming for Mars and Venus, the Soviet Union started using the N1 to try and
TMK在1996年被取消
land on the moon, and plans for TMK were canceled by 1966.
不幸的是 N1同样也进行的不是很成功 在20世纪70年代取消N1前
Unfortunately, the N1 wasn’t too successful either, with four failed launches before the
其间共有四次发射失败的惨厉
program was canceled in the 1970s.
现在 虽然我们还没有派飞行员另外的星球 美国是第一个在NASA的空间站 -天空实验室号上生活的国家
Now, even though we haven’t sent a crew another planet yet, Americans first started
该空间站实在20世纪70年代发射成功的
living in space aboard NASA’s Skylab, which launched in the 1970s.
天空实验室相当的小 只能同时容纳3个人
Skylab was pretty small and could handle only three astronauts at a time.
所以他不像一个空间站 自2000年以来
So it wasn’t like the International Space Station, which, since 2000, has typically
空间站都是能够同时容纳3-6个人的
had 3-6 people living on board at a time.
但像ISS这样的东西可能早就存在了
But something like the ISS could have existed a lot sooner.
在20世纪80年代 继天空试验号之后 计划建造更大的
In the 1980s, after Skylab, there were plans for a much larger, all-American space station
全美空间站-自由号空间站
named Space Station Freedom.
为什么他叫全美空间站?
Because what else do you call an American space station?
该空间站计划从1994-1997共三年时间完成 其间以为员工住在那并从1995年
The plan was to build the station from 1994 to 1997, with a crew living there and doing
开始做科学研究
scientific research starting in 1995.
但当NASA把他们的初步预算提交给国会时政府对于145亿美元的价格
But when NASA sent their first budget proposal to Congress, the government was pretty upset
觉得难以接受非常不满
about the $14.5 billion price tag.
所以预算缩水了 结果导致进展一直不顺
So the plans were downsized, but the conflicts continued.
在1987年 全美号这一想法被搁置了为了发展一些花费少的项目 欧洲航天局
In 1987, the “all-American” idea was dropped to help lower costs, and the European Space
被引进加入到空间站的建设项目中
Agency was brought in to add a module to the station.
但是NASA和ESA就欧洲所扮演的角色很难达成一致
But NASA and the ESA had a hard time agreeing on what Europe’s role was.
最重要的是 科学家们并不喜欢新的自由号计划 因为预算被削减了导致
On top of that, scientists disliked the new plans for Freedom because the budget cuts
投入的科研力量严重不足
had reduced its science capabilities.
直到1988年 他们最终才达成协议
By 1988, they’d finally seemed to reach an agreement:
美国 加拿大 欧盟 日本 将共享自由号空间站
The U.S., Canada, Europe, and Japan would all share lab space on Freedom, and the station
空间站将轮流接纳6名美国宇航员和两名国际宇航员
would have a rotating crew of six American and two international astronauts.
但又出现了更多的物流和运输问题 经过几年的筹划
But more logistics and budgetary problems came up, and despite years of planning and
和发展 在1990年自由号空间站计划被取消了
development, Space Station Freedom was canceled in 1990.
国际空间站计划仅仅几年之后就被批准了 因此
The International Space Station was approved just a few years later, though, so we did
我们终于有了一个崭新的空间站
get a brand-new space station.
如果在20世纪80年代火星任务TMK号和自由号成功的话
The history of space travel could’ve been a lot different if the 1980s Mars mission,
太空探索之旅将会大大的不同
TMK, and Freedom had succeeded.
但是那也无关紧要了
But that’s okay.
虽然它们没有成功 但我们已经进行了几百次成功的飞行任务 探索了
Even without them, we’ve launched hundreds of other amazing missions, explored strange
这个全新的宇宙 大胆的走探索未知的领域
new worlds, and boldly gone where no one has gone before.
我们还有更多值得期待的航天飞行任务
And we have plenty more missions to look forward to!
感谢您收看这一集的SciShow空间
Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space!
还有特别感谢我们的赞助人对我们节目提供的帮助
And a very special thanks to our patrons on Patreon for helping us make this show possible.
如果您乐于帮助我们制作SciShow空间 快去打开patreon.com/scishow网站来加入我们吧
If you’d like to help make SciShow Space, just go to patreon.com/scishow, and don’t
不要忘了去订阅我们我们的YouTube网站-youtube.com/scishowspace
forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小李子

审核员

【MR】拾月

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DZs6T_bsJk

相关推荐