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三种能让你变臭的疾病 – 译学馆
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三种能让你变臭的疾病

3 Diseases That Make You Stink

你知道《权利的游戏》中有个叫Reek的臭烘烘的人物吗?
So, you know in Game of Thrones, there’s this character—smells really bad, they call him “Reek”?
事实上这有可能是由于我们知道的疾病引起的
Turns out, that could actually be caused by medical conditions that we know of,
这些疾病可以让你发出臭味
medical conditions that cause you to
但是却区别于传统的腋臭
emit odors that go way beyond the typical stinky armpit.
有时候你可能会发出烂白菜味、汗脚味、臭鱼味
In some cases, you might reek of boiled cabbage, or sweaty feet, or even rotting fish.
这些情况很少见 但是它们的症状却很严重
These conditions are rare, but their symptoms can be pungent,
有时甚至特别危险
and sometimes also downright dangerous.
异常的人体气味通常是大问题的信号
Unusual body odors are often a sign of a bigger problem—specifically, a defect in the way
尤其是你的身体分解或代谢你的食物时
your body is breaking down, or metabolizing, your food.
举个例子 有一种病症叫做三甲基胺尿症
For example, there’s the condition known as trimethylaminuria—
也被称为鱼臭综合征
also known as “fish odor syndrome”.
有这种病症的患者闻起来像烂透了的鱼 因为他们的身体
Patients with this condition are said to smell like decomposing fish, because their bodies
不能分解出一种叫做三甲胺的化合物 产生“妙不可言”的鱼臭味
don’t break down a compound called trimethylamine, which emits the je ne sais quoi of fishiness.
如今每个人的身体都能产出三甲胺 尤其是细菌在肠道里
Now, everyone’s body produces trimethylamine—specifically, in the gut, where bacteria excrete it
帮助我们消化类似于蛋类、肝脏、鱼类的时候会分泌出这种物质
while helping us digest foods like eggs, liver, and fish.
通常情况下 你的身体里存在三甲胺是没有问题的
Normally, having all that trimethylamine in your body is not a problem,
由于肠道里一种酶的存在 它会转换成一种无气味的分子
because it’s converted into an odorless molecule, thanks to a special enzyme in the liver,
这种酶被称为黄素单氧酶
known as a flavin-containing monooxygenase.
但是患有鱼腥综合征的人不能分解掉有气味的化合物
But people with fish odor syndrome can’t metabolize the smelly compound, because they
因为他们基因突变会产生那种酶
have mutations in the gene that produces that enzyme.
没有足够的进行分解作用的酶 三甲胺不断累积
Without enough of that working enzyme, the trimethylamine builds up, and has nowhere
无处释放 只能通过你的汗液、尿液甚至是呼吸来释放
to go but out with your bodily fluids—in your sweat, urine, even on your breath.
但是患有这种疾病的人也有一些其他选择
But people with the condition do have some options.
他们可以通过改变饮食来减少先驱化学品的摄入
They can change their diets so there are fewer of the precursor chemicals
而这种先驱化学品会分解成为三甲胺
that get broken down into trimethylamine.
这是唯一的情况 医生会告诉你不要吃花椰菜
It’s one of the only times your doctor will actually tell you not to eat your broccoli,
或者球芽甘蓝!
or your brussels sprouts!
输抗生素也能杀死一些会产生三甲胺的细菌
Infusions of antibiotics can also help wipe out some of the bacteria that are making the trimethylamine.
这些方法并不能从根本上解决问题 但是好消息是如果不考虑味道
These rarely solve the problem entirely, but the good news is that apart from the smell,
鱼腥综合征并不会给健康带来什么大的问题
there isn’t any major health problem associated with fish odor syndrome.
不过让人有脚臭味的独特疾病 情况并非如此简单
Which is not the case for a disorder that gives people the distinctive whiff of sweaty feet.
这种情况被称为异茂酸酸血症
This condition, known as isovaleric acidemia,
这会导致大脑损伤 甚至是死亡
can cause brain damage, and even death,
尤其对于小孩子来说更是这样
particularly in young children.
由于患者基因突变会导致缺乏一种酶
Here, patients have a genetic mutation that leads to a deficiency in an enzyme called
被称为-异戊酸辅酶A脱氢酶
isovaleric co-enzyme A dehydrogenase.
这种酶十分重要 因为它能分解氨基酸白氨酸
This enzyme is important because it helps break down the amino acid leucine.
没有这种酶 亮氨酸只能被部分分解
Without this enzyme, leucine can only be broken down part-way.
未分解的部分 叫做异戊酸
And the compound that’s left over from this process, an acid called isovaleric acid,
开始积累下来
starts to build up.
异戊酸闻起来像奶酪
Isovaleric acid smells kind of like cheese, and it’s the same chemical
它也是让你有臭脚味的化学物质
that makes your sweaty feet smell.
当隐藏在脚趾的细菌产生亮氨酸时
The bacteria hiding out between your toes produce this acid
就会产生这种酸
when they’re chomping away on leucine.
然而这种异戊酸让人很不愉快
But while isovaleric acid isn’t exactly pleasant to smell outside your body,
它能够彻底的损害身体内部
it can be downright damaging to the inside.
现在还不清楚原因 但异戊酸的积累往往
It’s not exactly clear why, but a build-up of isovaleric acid tends to have the most
会对中枢神经系统产生剧烈的影响
dramatic effects on the central nervous system.
数量很大时 它产生毒性刺激神经元
In large amounts, it’s toxic to neurons,
可能会导致很多病人发育迟缓
which can result in developmental delays in many patients.
并且因为缺乏这种酶会导致母乳和婴儿食品吸收困难
And because this enzyme deficiency makes it difficult to digest breast milk or formula,
危急症状可能在出生不久就会出现
dangerous symptoms can start appearing very soon after birth.
在一些严重的案例中
In severe cases, infants just a few days old
刚出生几天的婴儿拒绝进食并且开始癫痫
will refuse to eat and begin to have seizures.
目前没有治疗异戊酸血症的方法 但是一些疗法
There is, so far, no cure for isovaleric acidemia, but some treatments—
比如避免进食白氨酸过多的食物 从其他物质中 比如没有威胁的氨基酸
like avoiding foods rich in leucine, and taking supplements of other, non-threatening amino acids—
能够保证患者安全
can help keep patients safe.
最后 奇怪的症状甚至陌生人的微笑也能导致相似的紊乱
Finally, peculiar symptoms and even stranger smells can result from another, similar disorder
也被称作“高甲硫胺酸血症”
known as hypermethioninemia.
这种情况出于含有太多不同的氨基酸:甲硫氨酸
In this case, the problem is having too much of a different amino acid: methionine.
甲硫氨酸是一种稀有氨基酸含有硫 一种含有刺激性气味的元素
Methionine is the rare amino acid that contains sulfur, an element known for its pungent odor.
当甲硫氨酸在身体里不恰当的参与新陈代谢时 它能导致大量的
And when methionine isn’t metabolized properly in your body, it can result in large amounts
二甲基硫化物 能产生一种和烂白菜类似的味道
of dimethylsulfide, which produces a smell similar to boiled cabbage.
所以产生体味的原因就是你吃了太多的甲硫氨酸
Sometimes the condition comes about just because you’ve eaten too much methionine,
存在于高蛋白食物中 比如肉和奶酪
which is in protein-rich foods, like meat and cheese.
但是如果起因是基因 可以被归咎于一些能够
But if the cause is genetic, it can be due to mutations in one of several genes
生成酶促使分解甲硫氨酸的基因突变
that are responsible for making the enzymes that help break down methionine.
没有那些酶 患者有时候就有烂白菜般的味道
Without those enzymes, patients sometimes have that cabbagey smell
存在于他们的汗液、呼吸和尿液中
in their sweat, breath, or urine.
奇怪的是并不是有疾病的人都有症状 事实上大多数人都没有
And strangely, not everyone with the disease has symptoms—in fact, most people don’t.
但有的人就会很严重
But in some, it can be serious.
在严重的例子中 无能处理甲硫氨酸会导致神经性的障碍
In severe cases, the inability to process methionine can lead to neurological problems
肌无力和其他神经系统的问题
and muscle weakness, among other problems in the nervous system.
同样的治疗方法通常包括避免含有甲硫氨酸的食物
Again, treatment usually involves avoiding foods that contain methionine, as well as
同时吃一些能保证身体需要的营养品
taking supplements to make sure that the body is getting what it needs.
所以一般的Bo对于少有的能产生不愉快气味的医学情况来说
So, run-of-the-mill BO is nothing compared to the very real medical conditions that can
什么都不是
create unpleasant smells.
身体会有很多时候发生错误 当你身体新陈代谢食物的时候
There are a lot of things that can go wrong when your body metabolizes food,
奇怪的味道恰恰是帮助你发觉和诊断它们的时候
and weird odors are just one way to help spot and diagnose them.
这集的科学秀是由23and Me带给你们的 一个个人基因分析公司
This episode of SciShow is brought to you by 23andMe, a personal genetic analysis company
宗旨是帮助人们了解他们的DNA
created to help people understand their DNA.
名字‘23和我’来源于人类的DNA是有23对染色体组成的
The name ‘23andMe’ comes from the fact that human DNA is organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes.
通过基因分析‘23和我’的用户可以看到他们的祖先来自于地球上哪个区域
Through genetic analysis, 23andMe users can see which regions around the world their ancestors
还有DNA是怎么影响他们的面部、头发
came from, and learn how their DNA influences facial features, hair,
味觉和嗅觉、睡眠质量等等
sense of taste and smell, sleep quality and more.
你也可以和与你有相似DNA人联系起来
You can also connect with people who share similar DNA; and also learn how your DNA may
然后看你的DNA对于身心健康的影响
influence your health and wellness.
我一直以来都想看看 但是我一直都没有 不知道为什么
I’ve been wanting to do this for so long, and I haven’t, and I don’t know why.
哦 这对于绿色屏幕来说可能会有一点难辨识
Oh, this is gonna be hard with the green screen.
喔喔 在哪儿呢?
Woo, woo, where is it?
他们会告诉我关于我的…从我的唾液中
They’re gonna tell me about me … from my spit.
啥?这漏斗里是装啥液体的?
What? What’s the liquid in the funnel for?
噢哇 我弄坏了吗?
Oh, woah, did I break it?
Ok没事 什么事都没有!
Okay, it’s fine. Everything’s fine. Alright.
现在我就把唾液弄进去
Now I just spit in it.
把我的唾液送去检验 我就有机会了解自己的健康
By sending in my saliva, I’ll have the opportunity to learn about my health, ancestry,
祖先和个人特征通过我的DNA
and personal traits through my DNA.
我也会了解到关于肌肉组成
I’ll also learn about my genetics related to
乳糖不耐受
muscle composition, lactose intolerance,
和咖啡因消耗的基因
and caffeine consumption.
在我给kit发邮件后 几周就会有结果了
Once I mail in my kit, I’ll have the results in a few weeks.
像我一样做并且支持科学秀
To do the same—and to support SciShow
请访问23andMe.com/SciShow
—pleasecheck out 23andMe.com/SciShow

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视频概述

你身上有令人不愉悦的味道吗?你知道它是怎么产生的吗?是你的身体状况和基因决定的

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

小天使

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PntIKgV88PU

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