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关于树袋熊的24个事实

24 Facts about Koalas - mental_floss List Show Ep. 522

大家好 我是约翰·格林 欢迎来到我的沙龙
Hi, I’m John Green. Welcome to my salon.
这里是《精神筛查》视频
This is Mental Floss video.
你知道吗?树袋熊就像人类一样有指纹
And did you know that koalas have fingerprints just like humans?
实际上 它们的指纹和我们的指纹没有区别
In fact, they’re virtually indistinguishable from ours.
像人类一样有指纹的其他动物只有我们的亲戚
The only other animals that have fingerprints like humans are our relatives,
例如黑猩猩和大猩猩
like chimps and gorillas.
解剖学家认为树袋熊可能进化出了一种方式
Anatomist believe that koalas may have evolved a method or way
来帮助它们抓握可食用的桉树叶
to help them grab and hold edible eucalyptus leaves.
这就是我今天要告诉你们的关于树袋熊的诸多事实的第一个
And that is the first of many facts about koalas I’m going to share with you today.
没错 这是个树袋熊专属集锦 “叹为观止的树袋熊”
That’s right. It’s a koala-only episode, a “koala-tacular”!
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有人认为“koala(树袋熊)”一词源于
Some sources say the word “koala” may have come from
土著民语言的单词 意思是“不喝水”
an aboriginal word meaning “no drink”,
因为树袋熊不会喝很多水
because koalas don’t drink much.
但也有人说那是假的 这个词实际上来源于达拉语
But some say that’s a myth and the term actually has Darragh origins.
那是一种特定的土著语言 意思是“动物”
That’s a specific aboriginal language and means “animals”.
说到树袋熊语言学 其实没有单词描述一群树袋熊
Speaking of koala linguistics, there isn’t a word for a group of koalas.
它们并不是主动地互相回避
They don’t actively avoid each other,
但是它们是倾向独居的动物
but they tend to be solitary creatures.
所以并不需要一个描述群体的单词
So it’s not neccesary to have a word for a group.
树袋熊当然也有学名
Koalas also have a scientific name, of course.
它们属的术语源于希腊语 意思是“有袋的熊”
And the term for their genus comes from Greek words and means “pouched bear”.
但是树袋熊并不是熊
But koalas aren’t bears.
它们是有袋的哺乳动物 所以是有袋类动物
They’re mammals with pouches which makes them marsupials.
有袋也让它们非常可爱
It also makes them adorable.
关于树袋熊的历史 它们祖先的化石已被发现
So for a bit of koala history, fossils have been found of their ancesters.
它们和我们今天看到的树袋熊很像
They were koalas very similar to the ones we know today,
可追溯到两千六百万年以前
as far back as 26 million years ago.
简单参考一下 我们人类存在了大约二十五万年
Just for a bit of context, our species has been around for about 250,000 years.
所以是树袋熊的历史的1%
So 1% of koala histoty.
第一批树袋熊出现以后
After the first koalas appeared,
有段时间还存在体型约只有一半大的小型树袋熊
there were for a time also tiny ones maybe just half as big.
更近一些的时候 大约三百万年前
And even more recently, about three million years ago,
存在着体型是现在树袋熊两倍大的大树袋熊
there were giant koalas double the size of the current one.
但那时 澳大利亚主要都是雨林
But back then, Australia had mostly rainforests.
在雨林中 桉树相对稀少
In the rainforest, eucalyptus trees were relatively scarce,
但是树袋熊还是以桉树叶为食
and yet koalas still used them for food.
这实际上给了树袋熊生存优势
That actually gave koalas an evolutionary advantage,
因为随着澳大利亚变得干燥起来
because as Australia became more dry,
许多其他种类的树都减少了 而桉树还在
many other trees receded, but the eucalyptus stayed around.
顺便一提 我们总认为树袋熊是澳大利亚的常见动物
By the way, we tend to take koalas as a common Australian animal,
但实际上澳大利亚的野骆驼都比树袋熊多十倍
but they actually have 10-times more wild camels in Australia than they do koalas.
树袋熊和澳大利亚之间的密切联系
The reason for the strong association between koalas and Australia
部分是因为漫画家诺曼·林齐
is partly thanks to the cartoonist Norman Lindsay.
在二十世纪初 他创造了一些树袋熊角色
At the turn of the 20th century, he created a group of koala characters
用以讽刺部分澳大利亚文化
which were used to satirize parts of Australian culture.
另一原因是在一战期间
Another reason for the connection is that during World War I,
第一澳大利亚帝国军队的一个小队实际上带了一只树袋熊
a contingent of the first Australian Imperial force actually brought a koala with them
和他们去巴勒斯坦 把它当作一种活的吉祥物
to Palestine as sort of a living mascot.
不过那又怎样 2008年英国军队里还有一只上等兵山羊
But whatever England had a lance-corporal goat in their army in 2008.
树袋熊在不同的树之间流动生活
Koalas moved from tree to tree,
但它们经常会重访同几棵树
but they revisit the same ones a lot.
它们偏爱的一些树被称为它们的活动范围
Their preferred group of trees is known as their home range.
尽管正如我在前面所说 它们非常喜欢独居
And despite being fairly solitary like I mentioned before,
但它们会和他人分享树木和活动范围
they do share trees and home ranges with each other,
不过它们也有自己的领土
But they also have a territorial side.
雄性树袋熊叫做buck 雌性树袋熊叫做dough
Male koalas which are called bucks (by the way females are doughs)
雄性树袋熊有一个气味腺 它们用气味腺标记领土
have a scent gland that they use to mark territory.
气味腺是胸部的一个棕色腺体
It’s a brown gland on the chest
它们涂在树上 告诉其他雄性树袋熊
that they rub on trees to inform other bucks,
“你知道 这是我的树 你能从气味中判断”
“You know, this is my tree. You can tell from my smell.”
这不是雄性树袋熊做的唯一奇怪的事情
That’s not the only weird thing bucks do.
它们的吼叫声低沉而响亮
They have this low loud bellow.
根据专家所说 它们的吼叫声在音高上与大象低吼相近
According to experts, it’s similar to an elephant rumble in pitch
考虑到它们的体型 这是很令人惊讶的
which is surprising considering their size.
这是为了警告其他雄性树袋熊 并吸引雌性树袋熊
This is meant to alarm other bucks and to attract doughs.
但根据记录 树袋熊很少互相打架
But for the record, koalas rarely fight each other.
当然澳大利亚会变得很热 即使如此它们也不会出汗
They also don’t sweat even though of course it gets quite hot in Australia.
它们经常抱着树的原因就是为了保持凉爽
The reason they’re often hugging trees is to stay cool.
这就是为什么有时它们甚至挂在没有桉树叶的树上
And that’s why sometimes they’ll even hang on to trees that don’t have eucalyptus leaves.
豹 灵长类 鸟类都利用树木保持凉爽
It’s not that leopards, primates, and birds all use trees to stay cool,
尽管并不都是通过抱树的方式
although not all via hugging.
树袋熊幼崽叫做joey 它们非常非常可爱
Baby koalas are known as joeys and they’re very very cute,
但是它们也有点恶心
but they’re also kind of disgusting.
当它们小的时候 它们还不能吃桉树叶
When they’re young, they don’t eat eucalyptus leaves yet.
所以它们从母亲的乳头获取营养
So they get nutrients from their mothers’ pap,
本质上就是粪便 只是成分不同
which is essentially poop with a different composition
就像从它们母亲屁股里出来的粪便
like it comes out of their mothers bottoms.
既然我已经毁了树袋熊在你心里的形象 它们有点坏
And since I’m already ruining koalas for you, they’re kind of mean.
2006年 悉尼先驱晨报报导
In 2006, the Sydney Morning Herald reported that
有小偷偷了一条鳄鱼 卖了它换违法药物
some thieves had stolen a crocodile and traded it for illegal substances.
据动物园管理员所说 小偷本来打算偷树袋熊
And according to a zookeeper, they’d originally planned to take a koala,
但是它(引用原话)“把他们抓得屁滚尿流”
but it (quote) “scratched the shit out of them”.
所以最后这些小偷偷走了鳄鱼
So in the end, the thieves took the crocodile
因为鳄鱼比树袋熊温和多了
because it was more agreeable than the koala.
2014年 一只名叫蒙杜的树袋熊从圣地亚哥的围场逃跑了
In 2014, a koala named Mundu escaped from his enclosure at the San Diego Zoo.
但它最后找了一棵在它平时活动范围上方的树
But he ended up finding a tree above his usual home
然后就在那里睡了一整天
and then just spent the whole day sleeping there.
动物园管理员用一些桉树叶贿赂它回到了围场
The zookeepers got him back in the enclosure with some eucalyptus bribery.
这些动物如果逃出动物园 就不会可爱了
Here’s some animals that would not be cute if they escaped from a zoo:
鲨鱼 刺猬 水行侠 有脚的炸弹
shark, hedgehog, Aquaman, bomb with feet.
说到树袋熊打瞌睡 树袋熊每天睡18到22个小时
Speaking of koala snapping, the animals sleep between 18 and 22 hours per day.
但说它们总是很疲倦是一个误解
But it’s a misconception that they’re always tired
因为桉树叶会让它们兴奋
because eucalyptus leaves make them high.
它们只是需要保存能量
They really just need to conserve their energy
因为树叶的营养含量很低
due to the low nutritional content of the leaves.
它们的视力不好
And they don’t have great visions,
所以它们需要用大鼻子找出最好的桉树叶
so they need their large noses to seek out the best eucalyptus leaves.
它们还很挑剔
And they’re pretty picky.
澳大利亚有大约600种桉树
There are about 600 types of eucalyptus trees in Australia
各个地区各有不同
and they vary from area to area.
在一个特定区域 树袋熊倾向于只强烈偏好其中的1到3种
In a given region, koalas tend to strongly prefer just 1 to 3 types,
尽管在紧要关头 他们也能忍受吃大约50种桉树叶
although in a pinch, they’ll tolerate about 50.
还有 如果你在澳大利亚 不要像树袋熊一样吃桉树叶
Also, if you’re in Australia, do not eat like a koala.
桉树叶对人类有毒
Eucalyptus leaves are poisonous to humans.
大多数动物也不能吃桉树叶
Most animals actually can’t eat them, either.
树袋熊的消化道里有特殊的微生物 使它们能够消化
Koalas have special microbes in their digestive tract to make their diet possible.
它们还很能吃 因为我前面提到过桉树叶营养含量低
They also have to eat a lot due to that aforementioned low nutritional content.
它们每天吃最多2.2磅的树叶
They eat up to 2.2 pounds of leaves per day,
此外 有时它们会在脸颊储存一些额外的食物供以后用
plus sometimes they keep some extra in their cheeks for later.
树袋熊也会有异色瞳
Koalas can also have heterochromia,
两只眼睛的颜色不同
two eyes that are different colours.
一只这样的树袋熊在2016年被发现 叫做波依
One was found in 2016, named Bowie.
这在有袋类动物中是非常少见的特征
It’s a very rare feature for marsupials.
不幸的是 树袋熊不少见的东西是衣原体
Unfortunately, something that isn’t rare for koalas is chlamydia.
估计50%到90%的树袋熊有衣原体
An estimated 50 to 90 percent of the animals have it.
历史上 树袋熊的基因多样性很低
Historically, koalas have had very low genetic diversity,
这就是为什么这么多树袋熊患有同样的传染病
and that’s why so many of them are sufferring from the same infection.
基因多样性低也意味着它们更难应对气候变化
It also means it’s going to be harder for them to deal with climate change.
除了要与这些困难作斗争之外
And in addition to those struggles,
树袋熊的栖息地减少到了原来的20%
koalas are down to about 20% of their original habitat.
令人难过的是 上世纪九十年代以来 它们的数量减少了约95%
And sadly, their population has dropped by about 95% since the 1990s.
最后 我回到我的沙龙告诉你
And finally, I return to my salon to tell you
树袋熊不仅吃桉树叶 它们还吃土
that koalas do not only eat eucalyptus. They also eat dirt.
正如我在前面提到的 桉树叶提供的营养含量不全面
As I mentioned earlier, the nutrition content of eucalyptus leaves isn’t ideal.
所以它们从泥土中获取钙元素
So they get some calcium from dirt.
泥土还能帮助它们充分消化桉树叶
And it helps them to fully digest their eucalyptus.
谢谢观看《精神筛查》视频
Thanks for watching Mental Floss video
这是在这些可爱的人们的帮助下完成的
which is made with the help of these lovely people.
也谢谢那里所有的树袋熊
And thanks to all the koalas out there
谢谢它们即使在困难时期也那么可爱
for being adorable even in hard times.
我的家乡有这样一句话“别忘了要做一个很棒的人”
As we say it in my hometown, “don’t forget to be awesome”.
[音乐]
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视频概述

本视频介绍了树袋熊不为人知的24个事实,例如树袋熊也有指纹等等。语言风格轻松诙谐,在轻松欢乐的氛围中讲述关于树袋熊的冷知识,并呼吁对树袋熊的保护。

听录译者

翻译译者

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oXybog2IuI

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