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2019十大科学突破 – 译学馆
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2019十大科学突破

2019 Breakthrough of the Year

Every year, reporters and editors at Science
每年《科学》杂志的记者和编辑
choose several runners-up, and one Breakthrough of the Year.
都会选出几项重要发现和一项年度重大突破
Before we get to the Breakthrough, here are the runners-up.
在介绍重大突破之前 先来了解几项重要发现
In Mexico, researchers have drilled rock cores from the Chicxulub crater.
在墨西哥 研究人员钻取了希克苏鲁伯陨石坑的岩石内核
The cores chronicle in minute-by-minute detail
岩石内核详细记载了小行星撞地球后发生的事情
the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs.
而这正是恐龙灭绝的缘由
Other studies have revealed how the impact immediately distoyed living things
其他研究揭示了撞击事件如何在瞬息间
thousands of kilometers away.
毁灭了几千公里之外的生物
and how mammals and plants recovered in the thousands of years that followed.
以及此后几千年哺乳动物和植物的恢复情况
A team of physicists claimed
一个物理学家团队称
its rudimentary quantum computer performed a calculation in 200 seconds,
其基本量子计算机在200秒内完成一次运算
that would overwhelm a conventional supercomputer.
将超越传统超级计算机
The achievement is known as quantum supremacy,
这一成就被称为“量子霸权”
and it marks a significant milestone
是全功能量子计算机领域
on the long road to a fully functioning quantum computer.
漫长道路上的一个重要里程碑
Artificial intelligence systems have conquered a variety of complex two-person games.
人工智能系统已攻克很多复杂的双人游戏
But this year, a system called Pluribus upped the ante.
但今年Pluribus系统做得更好
It beat professional players in thousands of six-hand games of no-limit Texas Hold’em poker,
它在数千场六人无限注德州扑克中击败职业玩家
a vastly more complex challenge.
这项挑战要复杂得多
Denisovans, the extinct cousins of Neanderthals,
丹尼索瓦人是尼安德特人已灭绝的近亲
have been known only by scraps of fossils
过去 除了在西伯利亚某俄国洞穴发现的化石碎片
from a Russian cave in Siberia.
人们对他们一无所知
But their genetic traces are found in modern humans,
但现代人身上有他们的基因痕迹
especially in Melanesia and Australia.
尤其是生活在美拉尼西亚和澳大利亚的人
This year, scientists used a new protein method to identify
今年 科学家用一种新的蛋白质分析方法
a jaw bone found on the Tibetan Plateau as Denisovan.
识别出一块发现于青藏高原的丹尼索瓦人颌骨
It’s the first physical trace of a Denisovan found outside Siberia.
是西伯利亚外发现的丹尼索瓦人的首条线索
And another research group used genetic data
另一研究团队用基因数据
to reconstruct the face of a Denisovan girl.
重现了一个丹尼索瓦女孩的面部
The search for effective treatments for Ebola has seen a string of disappointments.
埃博拉有效治疗的研究经历了种种失败
But this year, two drugs tested during the Ebola outbreak
但在今年刚果民主共和国埃博拉爆发期间
in the Democratic Repulic of the Congo dramatically increased the patient’s chance of survival.
两种试验性新药极大提高了患者的存活率
NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft celebrated the new year
美国国家航空航天局“新视野”号飞船
by relaying images of an icy object from the far reaches of the Solar System,
传回太阳系边缘冰冷天体的图片来贺岁
1.6 billion kilometers beyond Pluto.
该天体位于冥王星16亿公里外
It looks like two merged lumpy pancakes.
看上去像两块接合起来的薄煎饼
Researchers believe it hasn’t been disturbed since the formation of the Solar System,
研究员认为 自太阳系形成以来它就未受干扰
and it holds clues to how planets form.
通过它可以掌握行星形成的线索
A series of studies has indicated that some severely malnourished children recuperate slowly,
一系列研究表明 严重营养不良的儿童恢复缓慢
if after all,
即使后来他们能吃饱
because their gut microbes remain in an immature state.
这是因为他们的肠道菌群仍处于不成熟状态
This year, researchers came up with nutritional supplements
今年 研究人员研制了营养补充剂
that help the gut flora in these children recover,
帮助这些儿童恢复肠道菌群
paving the way for more effective treatments.
为更有效的治疗铺平了道路
A drug combination approved this year in the United States,
今年 美国批准了一种复合药物
aims to turn Cystic fibrosis
旨在将多数患者的囊性纤维症
from a progressively damaging lung disease,
从一种日益严重的肺病
into a manageable chronic illness for most patients.
转变为一种更易控制的慢性疾病
The treatment, which counteracts the effects
疗法可用于治疗
of a genetic mutation carried by 90% of Cystic fibrosis patients,
90%携带基因突变的囊性纤维化患者
comes 30 years after researchers identified the gene behind the disease.
研究员发现致病基因30年后 该疗法出现了
This year, microbiologists took a major step
今年 微生物学家们取得了重大进展
toward understanding the origin of eukaryotes,
他们对真核生物的起源有了进一步了解
the group that includes plants, animals, and other organisms with cell nuclei.
真核生物包括动植物及其他具有细胞核的生物
After 12 years of trying, they succeeded in culturing a microbe
历经12年试验 他们成功培养出了一种微生物
that belongs to an elusive group called Asgard archaea.
它属于某复杂群体 名为阿斯加德古菌
They are the closest relatives to eukaryotes, according to recent DNA analyses.
最新DNA分析表明 它们是与真核生物最相近的物种
Now, researchers have this missing link in hand to study.
现在 研究者们正在研究物种间被忽视的联系
And now, the Breakthrough of the Year.
下面介绍年度重大突破
In a technical tour de force,
在一项技术壮举中
astronomers combined observations from dozens of radio telescope dishes
天文学家综合了来自全球八个天文台
at eight observatories around the globe,
数十台射电望远镜的观测结果
to generate the first image of a black hole.
制作了第一张黑洞图像
The image shows a ring of light surrounding a supermassive black hole
图像显示一个光环绕着一个超大质量黑洞
at the center of a galaxy
黑洞位于一个星系中心
53 million light-years from Earth.
距地球5300万光年
Science is recognizing this impressive international collaboration,
《科学》见证了这次令人难忘的国际合作
and its impact on our understanding of the cosmos,
及其对人类认识宇宙的影响
as the 2019 Breakthrough of the Year.
这一合作成果被评为2019年科学重大突破

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视频概述

《科学》杂志评选的2019年度十大科学突破,其中包括人类第一张黑洞图像,小行星撞击地球,埃博拉病毒药物,谷歌量子“巨无霸”,中国青藏高原研究所丹尼索瓦人,日本研究小组回首生命起源,NASA太阳系的“天涯海角”,囊性纤维病疗法,严重营养不良试验以及人工智能打扑克等一系列研究。

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