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一只2千万年的蜘蛛!揭开蛛丝之谜 – 译学馆
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一只2千万年的蜘蛛!揭开蛛丝之谜

20 MILLION Year-Old Spider!! Unweaving Spider Silk 🕷

[音乐]
[MUSIC]
思考一个问题:无论你现在坐在何处
Think about this: Wherever you ’ re sitting right now,
都可能有一只蜘蛛在你身边
chances are there ’ s a spider nearby.
这也就意味着 你身边有一张蜘蛛网
Which means there’s also a spider web.
你应该感到激动 因为蜘蛛丝真的很神奇
And you should be excited about that, because spider silk is awesome.
蜘蛛吐出的丝
Spiders manufacture something stronger, stretchier,
比人造丝更强韧 更有弹性 更粘稠
or stickier than just about anything humans have engineered.
一条蜘蛛丝肉眼基本看不到
A thread of spider silk is nearly invisible,
这就是为什么你可能
which is why you ’ ve probably walked through
没注意而一脸撞上去
it with your face.
提到蜘蛛丝的韧劲
Yet when it comes to strength,
有些可以与钢铁和凯夫拉尔强韧度不相上下
some spider silk fibers rival steel and Kevlar.
想象一下 一捆直径
Imagine this: A silk cord about the diameter
像浇花园的水管般大的蜘蛛丝能提起一架客机
of a garden hose could hold up a passenger jet.
所以 这么个小动物是如何
So how does such a tiny animal weave
是怎么在它的屁股 吐出这么神奇的物质
such an amazing material using nothing but its rear end?
我想知道
I wanted to find out,
所以我去美国自然史博物馆找
so I went to the American Museum of Natural History to meet Dr. Cheryl Hayashi,
谢丽尔·林博士
who’s maybe the world’s
她是世界头号研究蜘蛛丝的博士
#1 expert in the science of spider silk.
每个人都知道蜘蛛会吐丝
Everybody knows that spiders make silk,
但是我认为大多数人
but I don’t think most people realize just how
不知道它们能吐多少种蜘蛛丝
many kinds of silk spiders make.
有超过4600种蜘蛛
There’s over 46,000 described species
它们大多数能吐出
of spiders – and most spiders make four, five, six,
4至8种丝
seven, eight kinds of silk.
如果你计算一下 你会发现它们吐的丝种类量惊人
So if you do the math, it’s huge!
这是一只金丝蜘蛛 学名Nephila clavipes
So this is Nephila clavipes, the golden orb-weaver,
它可以吐出七种不同的蜘蛛丝
and she can make seven different types of silk.
七种不同的蜘蛛丝吗?
Seven different kinds of spider silk?
从那个小小的身体内吐出?
In that tiny little body?
是的 但 一些人认为
Yeah! Well, some people don’t think it’s
那不是小小的身体
a tiny little body…Acctually, it’s not
这不是我见过最小的蜘蛛
the smallest spider I ’ ve ever seen!
当你看到金丝蜘蛛的网
When you look at the golden orb weaver ’ s trademark web,
你实际上
you’re actually looking at
看到的是几种不同的丝
several different types of silk.
这是拖丝
There ’ s the dragline silk:
蜘蛛会像安全绳索一样绑在身后
The spider drags it behind like a climber ’ s safety rope.
这也网外部构架的组成部分
It also makes up the web’s outer frame.
有一种丝会帮助形成网的构架
There’s one silk to guide the web’s construction.
像螺旋一般诱捕猎物的蜘蛛丝 实际上是两种以上的丝混合成的
The spiral that traps prey, is actually a mix of two more silks: A stretchy silk covered
一条弹性很好的丝上铺有像胶水一样粘的蜘蛛丝
in a sticky glue-like silk on top.
像结合剂一样的丝
There ’ s a cement-like silk to attach
可以把网挂在任何东西的上面
the web to whatever it ’ s hanging on.
有种丝可以诱捕猎物
There’s a silk for wrapping up prey.
蜘蛛甚至会产蛋在里面
They even wrap their eggs in silk.
一只蜘蛛能吐出七种不同的丝
Seven different silks, all made by one spider.
那么这些东西到底是什么呢?
So what exactly is this stuff?
蜘蛛丝是由蛋白质构成的
Spider silk is made of proteins,
丝纤维中主要的蛋白质是这些
and the dominant proteins inside a silk fiber are these specialized
叫做蜘蛛丝蛋白的特殊蛋白类
category of proteins called spidroins,
这是蜘蛛特有的蜘蛛纤维蛋白
which stands for spider fibroins, that are unique to spiders.
在蜘蛛体内 所有的丝腺都含有液态蛋白质
Inside the body, all of the silk glands have liquid protein in them.
所以这些就是液态蛋白
So it ’ s liquid protein,
当我解剖一只蜘蛛取出丝腺的时候
and when I dissect a spider and I take out a silk gland, and
弄破丝腺 会流出像蜂蜜一样的东西
I break the gland open, it has the consistency of honey!
这是一种具有粘性的粘稠物质
It’s a viscous, gooey substance that’s in there.
是高度浓缩的丝蛋白
And it’s highly-concentrated silk protein.
这会让你想知道解剖学上真正的蜘蛛侠长什么样
It kind of makes you wonder what an anatomically correct Spider-Man would look like.
每个蛋白质链的原料都是20种氨基酸
The raw ingredients for every protein chain are twenty amino acids,
这些氨基酸排列方式
and the recipes for
都是由基因编码控制的
these chains are coded in genes.
这些链中的氨基酸顺序决定了蛋白质的的形态
The order of amino acids in these chains determine what a protein looks like,
还有蛋白质的功能
and what it will do.
蛛丝蛋白的构建方式十分特殊
And spider silk proteins are built in a veryspecial way.
想象一个像长火车一样的丝绸分子 由不同的车厢组成
Imagine a silk molecule like a long train, made up of different boxcars.
每一种车厢内都有一串氨基酸
Inside each type of boxcar is a string of amino acids.
在任何一种丝绸中
In any one type of silk,
我们都能在火车上看到同样的车厢
we see the same boxcars over and over all the way along the train.
这种独特的图案使每一个丝绸都如此特别
This unique pattern is what makes each silk so specialized.
蜘蛛用同样特殊的方法来使用这些丝绸
Spiders have cooked up some equally specialized ways to use these silks.
就像漏斗网蜘蛛一样 它用丝制成一种遮蔽物
Like the trapdoor spider, which weaves a camouflagedshelter from silk.
食人魔蜘蛛则能像渔夫一样投下一张蜘蛛网
The ogre spider, that it casts out a silk net like a fisherman.
或是红背蜘蛛
Or the redback spider,
能用具有粘性的蜘蛛丝做一个弹簧陷阱
who weaves a trap in the form of sticky spring-loaded snares.
其它的蜘蛛则能吐出重而剧毒的丝
Other spiders shoot venom-laced deadly silly string silk.
小蜘蛛甚至可以利用蜘蛛丝乘风
Small spiders can even ride the winds on silk sails,
像乘着气球一样
a trick called “ ballooning ” that
移动几公里
can carry them kilometers into the sky.
为寻找蜘蛛丝的起源
To find the origins of spider silk,
我们得追溯到好久以前
we have to go a long way back.
这是一个来自缅甸矿床的琥珀化石
This is fossil amber, it ’ s from a Burmese deposit,
里面有一只蜘蛛
and there ’ s a spider in here, and
这已经有10千万年的历史了
this is 100 million years old.
你想摸一下这只10千万岁的老蜘蛛吗 ?
Do you want to touch a 100-million-year-old spider?
我得小心一点了
I need to be very careful.
我正在拿着10千万年前的一小块东西
I ’ m holding a piece of the world from 100 million years ago,
里面有一只蜘蛛
and there ’ s a spider
它当时已经能像现在的蜘蛛一样会吐丝了吗?
in there that was already making silk likes piders do today?
是的
Yes.
10千万岁了啊!
100 million years old!
能送我吗?
I can keep this, right?
-抱歉-这是我们的秘密
-Sorry about that.-It’ll be our secret.
这是另一只琥珀化石 这一块就没有这么古董了 只有2千万年
Here’s another fossil spider, this one’s not quite as old: only 20 million years old.
只有两千万年?
Only 20-million-years-old?
几乎就像昨天的一般!
Practically yesterday!
这一块很好看
This one is just beautiful.
你可以看到蜘蛛在里面
I mean, you can see the spider inside.
它摆出了蜘蛛的姿势
It’s posing like a spider!
它好像知道了我们有一天会找到它一样
It knew that we would find it one day,
就像在说“我会
and it was like, “ I ’m
尽我最大的努力
gonna give them a really
摆一个好的
good pose.
姿势给他们看”
I’m going to do my best spidering.”
-这是为了你哦-谢谢 我真的很喜欢它
-Just for you.-Thank you, I really appreciate it!
但是教授不止研究
But Dr. Hayashi doesn ’ t just study
蜘蛛的进化以及它们是怎么吐丝的
how spiders evolved and how they make silk.
她还研究了蜘蛛丝的力学性能
She also studies its mechanical properties.
如果你能想象她在
If you ’ re picturing her pulling on spider silk
用小镊子拉蜘蛛丝那你大概就能懂了
with tiny tweezers, you ’ re not far off.
在这张卡上的是
This is one strand of dragline silk,
一条拖丝
that what ’ s on this card.
她用手一条条解开这些蜘蛛丝
She unweaves these single silk strands by hand,
并把它们放到一台特殊的机器中
and mounts them into a special machine
来检测它们断掉前能承受多大的拉力
to test how much pulling it can take beforeit breaks.
你可以看到有一条纤维连着它
And you can see there’s a fiber connectingthat.
所以连接机器这部分的 从这个夹钳到另一个夹钳的
So the only thing connecting this part ofthe machine: this clamp to this clamp, is
是这条蜘蛛丝
the silk fiber.
我们能够拉它吗?
Can we pull on it?
我们可以拉它
We can pull on it!
我们会彻底地拉断这条蜘蛛丝
We’re going to break this spider silk sogood.
[悬疑的音乐]
[SUSPENSEFUL MUSIC]
人们基本上没有发明出像蜘蛛丝一样轻
Weight for weight, almost nothing we humans have invented is
又强韧 且有弹性的
as strong, as stretchy, or
又能让猎物被其耗光力气的东西
absorbs energy as well as some spider silks.
所以 自然地 我们想
So naturally, we ’ re trying to
知道我们怎么样才能制造出这样的东西
figure out how to manufacture and weave this stuff for ourselves.
方法是你能提取到蜘蛛的基因
The approach is you take the spider silk gene,
然后你将这些能产丝的基因转移到其它的生物体中
and you move that silk gene into another organism
如细菌 植物 蚕或者是山羊
such as bacteria, a plant, a silk worm, oreven goats.
山羊?
Goats… like?
那山羊怎么吐出来丝?
Where is it coming out of the goats?
山羊它确实可以
So in the goat, it actually comes out,
基因在乳腺中表达出来
it ’ s expressed in the mammary gland.
会产在羊奶中
So it comes out with the milk.
如果我们喝了这些羊奶怎么办?
What happens if you drink that milk?
你会得到特异功能吗?
Do you get special powers? Um,
我自己还没喝过呢
I haven’t tried that myself.
我准备去卖蜘蛛丝山羊奶酪
I’m going to market spider silk milk goatcheese.
你先知道了
You heard it first!
蜘蛛丝羊奶还在实验中
Spider goat silk is still experimental,
但它展现了
but it shows us something really amazing about
进化的力量是如此惊人
the power of evolution.
利用我们所拥有的工具
With all our tools,
还有我们所具备的知识我们都不能
and all of our knowledge we haven ’ t invented a material as awesome
发明出像蜘蛛丝一般惊人的东西
as spider silk.
我们还不能和
We ’ re still no match for millions
百万年前的大自然的鬼斧神工相匹敌
of years worth of nature ’ s experiments. Well,
我交到了一个新朋友
I made a new friend.
我交到了两个新朋友
I made two new friends.
[蜘蛛的声音]
[SPIDER NOISES]
它像在和摄影机招手
She’s like, waving to the camera.
你知道他们说
You know, that’s what they say about spiders,
如果你拿着摄影机对着蜘蛛会发生什么吗?
you put a camera on them.
我知道
I know!
浮夸的表演
Hamming it up!
是的 浮夸的演技
Yeah, hamming it up.
她在说“你好呀,妈妈!”
She’s saying”Hi Mom!”

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视频概述

蜘蛛丝真的堪比大自然的鬼斧神工,至今人类还无法制造出像它一般的物质,带你听听博士怎么说吧~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQOxB_ylkvs

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