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2分钟神经科学知识:多巴胺是什么

2-Minute Neuroscience: Dopamine

欢迎来到《两分钟神经科学知识》
Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience,
我会在两分钟之内解说神经科学主题
where I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less.
本期我们讨论一下多巴胺
In this installment I will discuss dopamine.
多巴胺是一类单胺神经递质
Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter,
这个术语是根据化学结构
a term that refers to its chemical structure
以及它是是氨基酸的衍生物的事实命名的
and the fact that it is derived from an amino acid.
多巴胺也是一类儿茶酚胺
Dopamine is also a catecholamine,
这也是一个以关化学结构命名的术语
a term that also refers to its chemical structure
说明多巴胺含有儿茶酚
and the fact that it contains a catechol nucleus.
为了合成多巴胺
To synthesize dopamine,
酪氨酸要转化为左旋多巴
the amino acid tyrosine is converted to L-dopa.
接着 左旋多巴脱羧基组成多巴胺
Then L-DOPA is decarboxylated to form dopamine.
大脑中有几个
There are several areas of the brain
多巴胺神经元集中的区域
where dopamine neurons are concentrated.
其中最大的是黑质区
The largest are the substantia nigra
和中脑的腹侧被盖区
and ventral tegmental area in the midbrain.
其他区域包括下丘脑
Other areas include the hypothalamus,
嗅球和视网膜
olfactory bulb, and retina.
有几条主要的多巴胺神经通路
There are several major dopamine pathways
把多巴胺从这些集中区域
that carry dopamine from these areas of concentration
运送到大脑其他部分
to other parts of the brain.
最大的几条通路是黑质纹状体通路
Some of the largest are the mesostriatal or nigrostriatal pathway,
从黑质延伸到纹状体
which stretches from the substantia nigra to the striatum.
还有中脑缘通路
the mesolimbic pathway,
从腹侧被盖区延伸到
which strechtes from the ventral tegmental area
伏核以及其他边缘结构
to the nucleus accumbens and other limbic structures,
还有脑皮质神经通路
and the mesocortical pathway,
从腹侧被盖区延伸出来
which stretches from the ventral tegmental area
贯穿大脑皮层
throughout the cerebral cortex.
多巴胺在G蛋白耦合受体上作用
Dopamine acts at G-protein coupled receptors
且多巴胺受体至少有5种子类型
and there are at least 5 subtypes of the dopamine receptor.
多巴胺通过一种叫做
Dopamine is removed from the synaptic cleft
多巴胺转运体的通道蛋白 离开突触间隙
by a transporter protein called the dopamine transporter.
与所有神经递质类似 多巴胺功能复杂多样
Like any neurotransmitter, the functions of dopamine are complex,
一个短短的概括不能全部说清
and can’t be fully explained with just a short summary.
多巴胺与躯体运动有关
Dopamine is linked to movement due to disorders
因为帕金森症这类疾病的患者常缺乏多巴胺
like Parkinson’s disease that involve dopamine deficiencies.
多巴胺也通常与处理获取快感的行为有关联
It is also often associated with the processing of rewarding experiences.
然而 多巴胺也在其他功能中扮演重要角色
However, dopamine also plays a role in many other functions.

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视频概述

多巴胺

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wa8_nLwQIpg

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