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关于航天工业你不知道的十五件事

15 Things You Didn’t Know About The Space Industry

艾拉克斯社区
这里是《行业星期三》
This is Industry Wednesdays.
每个星期三我们都会分析一个不同的行业
Every Wednesday we analyze a different industry.
今天我们要关注的是
Today we’re looking at
关于航天工业你不知道的十五件事
15 things you didn’t know about the space industry.
欢迎来到ALUX.com
Welcome to ALUX.com,
这是未来的亿万富豪们获取知识的地方
the place where future billionaires come to get informed.
ALUX网网友们 你们好 欢迎回来观看
Hello ALUXERS, and welcome back for another original video
我们ALUX.com团队给你们带来的另一个原创视频
brought to you by our team here at ALUX.com.
在本视频中 我们将为你们揭开
In this video we’re going to discover
关于航天工业你不知道的十五件事
15 things you didn’t know about the space industry.
从人类可以抬起头仰望星空开始
Since humankind could throw their heads back and gaze up at the stars,
人们就开始向往漫游太空和利用太空的能量
they’ve been yearning to travel and harness the power of space.
现在 随着创新和技术的发展
Today with innovations and technology
以及人们对征服新领域的无穷动力
and an unfailing drive to conquer new frontiers,
我们已经取得了超乎想象的成功
we’ve succeeded beyond our wildest dreams.
但这里我们就不花费太多时间进行介绍了
But let’s not spend too much time here in the intro,
让我们直接进入话题
and dive in to find out the 15 things
来揭晓关于航天工业你不知道的十五件事
you didn’t know about the space industry.
如果你是第一次来这 十分欢迎!
If you’re new here, welcome!
请务必订阅并在Instagram关注我们@ALUX
Be sure to subscribe and follow us on Instagram @ALUX.
一 当你谈论到航天工业时
No.1 When you talk about the space industry,
要知道四大航天工业巨头是谁
know who the Big 4 are.
毫无疑问
It’s no surprise
航天工业中技术发展最快的要数卫星工业
the fastest-growing technology in the space industry is the satellite industry.
毕竟 我们在通信和娱乐方面
After all, we rely on them
几乎都需要用到它们
for pretty much all of our communications and entertainment needs.
单是电视转播创造的收入就占所有卫星产生收入的77%
77% of all satellite revenue is television-based alone.
四大航天工业巨头是指
The Big 4 refers to the big 4 companies
位于卫星工业顶端 收入达数十亿美元的四大公司
that are sitting on top of the billion-dollar satellite industry.
它们分别是SES——它是目前最成功的公司之一
They are SES, by far one of the most successful
据报道 其收入为17.6亿美元
with revenues reported at $1.76 billion,
Intelsat位列第二 收入为5.38亿美元
Intelsat coming in second with a reported $538 million,
Eutelsat和Telesat分列第三和第四
with Eutelsat and Telesat coming in third and fourth.
但是 ALUX网网友们
But ALUXERS, what exactly does it cost
将一颗卫星送入太空到底要花多少钱呢?
to send one satellite up into space?
估计在5千万美元至5亿美元之间
Estimates range between $50 million and $500 million.
为什么金额会相差这么大?
Why such a big discrepancy?
因为将卫星发送到太空和发送至轨道是不同的
Because getting launched into space is different than getting into orbit.
Space现在在轨道市场处于主导地位
SpaceX is ruling the orbiting market right now,
收费金额在5千万美元至5亿美元之间
charging that amount between $50 and $500 million.
二 开采小行星可能成为获得矿物原料的全新自然来源
No.2 Mining asteroids might be the new natural resource for raw minerals.
2018年10月 日本“隼鸟2号”探测器上的小型机器侦探器
In October 2018, Japan successfully landed a little robotic scout
成功着陆小行星“龙宫”并采集了该小行星的样本
on Ryugu from Hayabusa2 Probe to collect samples of the asteroid.
中国也发布了俘获小行星
China had also released plans to capture an asteroid
并将其带回地球
and bring it back to Earth
对其进行开发以获得自然资源的计划
in order to exploit it for natural resources.
众所周知
It’s no secret that
地球的自然资源在以飞快的速度减少
Earth’s natural resources are thinning at a fast pace,
而开采小行星可能刚好能弥补
and asteroid mining might just make up the deficit
黄金 白银以及其他重金属资源的不足
for things like gold, silver and many other heavy metals
对于运回至地球的费用
for transport back to Earth.
“隼鸟2号”任务的成本约为2.6亿美元
The cost of the Hayabusa2 mission was around $260 million,
而且“隼鸟2号”和采集的样本要到2020年才能回到地球
and it will not return to Earth with its samples until 2020.
但如果找到的资源足以弥补成本
But if the resources found can make up for the cost,
而且金融专家们认为该成本与地球上的传统采矿成本相同
which financial experts agree are on a par with traditional mining on Earth,
那么可能会以超乎我们想象的速度实现
we may be closer than we think.
三 太空旅游业已经开始出现
No.3 Space tourism is happening.
像由亚马逊创始人杰夫·贝佐斯创立的蓝色起源公司
Companies like Blue Origin, founded by Amazon creator Jeff Bezos,
以及维珍银河公司都有一个目标
and Virgin Galactic have one goal in mind:
那就是将人类送上太空
getting humans to space.
两个公司都曾多次成功发射火箭
Both companies have had multiple successful rocket launches
并准备实现太空旅游
and are looking to make space travel
这也是新型旅游业的一种
a part of a new breed of tourism.
需要提醒你的是 两小时旅途的票价
Mind you, one ticket would cost somewhere
大概在20万至30万美元之间
between $200,000 and $300,000 for a 2-hour ride.
尽管票价惊人
Remarkably though,
但仍有650人已经向维珍银河公司报名订票
650 people have already signed up with Virgin Galactic for those tickets.
蓝色起源公司的“新谢泼德”火箭
The Blue Origin rocket, known as the New Shepherd,
可搭载6人 并配有舒适的躺椅
can accommodate 6 people in comfy reclining seats
甚至在顶端有一个太空舱供人们观看壮观的景色
and even has a capsule at the tip for spectacular views.
维珍银河公司曾计划于2018年年底开始太空旅游
Virgin Galactic was scheduled to start giving rides in the end of 2018,
但看起来似乎蓝色起源公司
but it looks like Blue Origin might be beating them
可能将在太空旅游竞赛中打败他们
in the race to space tourism.
四 增材制造技术正对航天工业造成影响
No.4 Additive manufacturing is disrupting the space industry.
为航天工业服务的3D打印工业正在繁荣发展
3D printing for the space industry is booming
3D打印设备和软件年销售额已达10亿美元
with $1 billion in sales a year of 3D equipment and software.
NASA在太空站拥有自己的3D打印机
NASA has its own 3D printer in the space station,
这使他们拥有使用重型聚合物 而非金属
affording them the ability to print replacement parts and pieces
打印替换零部件的能力
using heavy-duty polymer rather than metal.
关于3D打印最令人兴奋的是什么呢?
And the most exciting thing about 3D printing?
是移居
Colonization.
将人类送入太空已经很难了
Launching people into space is hard enough,
而将全部基础设施送入太空基本上是不可能的
but getting whole infrastructures up there is next to impossible.
说到3D打印工业
Cue the 3D printing industry.
如果我们真的要在地球以外的地方
It’ll be the only way for us
建造旅馆甚至是永久性居住场所
to create the living spaces we need
那么3D打印技术将是我们
if we’re seriously going to explore the possibility of hotels
创造所需生活空间的唯一方法
and even permanent living quarters off of Earth.
五 服务业和房地产业将在太空繁荣发展
No.5 The hospitality and real estate industry are about to boom in space.
我们只有做好了应对太空的恶劣环境的准备
We can only colonize space
才有可能移居太空
if we’re prepared to deal with the harsh environment of it.
商业空间站公司和私人空间站公司
Commercial and privately-held space station companies
已经开始吸引投资者的注意
are starting to get the attention of investors,
他们准备创造各种情况所需的安全太空环境
looking to create safe environments in space for everything
从轨道制造到高端旅游景点以及开发项目
from orbital manufacturing to high-end tourist attractions and development programs.
该产业在国际空间站之外没有一个样例
Without even a model to go on outside of the ISS,
有望在接下来的十年中创造370亿美元的价值
this industry is looking to generate $37 billion in the next 10 years.
当公司知道如何从小行星和月球采矿时
As companies figure out how to mine from asteroids and the moon,
建造公司就可以利用太空已有的材料进行建造了
the materials will already be in space for construction firms to build with.
刚开始这些公司
Initially some of these companies
可能会先从地球发射一些高端旅店
may launch their high-end hotels from Earth first,
就像建造国际太空站一样
much like the way the ISS was built.
随着这种理念的发展
As this idea develops and expands, it’s possible that
可能有一天我们能在太空拥有完整的城市
we could one day have whole cities in space.
六 小卫星带来大利润
No.6 Small satellites bring big bucks.
印度太空研究组织 或称ISRO
The Indian Space Research Organization or ISRO
和美国一家叫做星球的私人公司
and Planet, a private American company
用一个火箭将104个卫星发射至太空轨道
launched 104 satellites into orbit from a single rocket,
每个卫星仅重5千克
each weighing just 5 kg,
这让他们在太空轨道拥有197个卫星的最大卫星群
making it the owner of the largest fleet in orbit, 197 total.
因此 美国国家地理空间情报局
As a result, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
与他们签署一份两千万美元的合同
awarded them a $20 million contract
以此每隔15天获得关于地球大陆块的图像
to obtain imagery of Earth’s land mass every 15 days.
小卫星是全球最热门的新产品
Small satellites, also known as small sats,
人们正以史上最大规模进行制造小行星
are the hottest new product being produced in record numbers around the planet.
然而 这项技术并不只是为了拍地球的好看照片
However, this technology is not just for taking pretty pictures of the Earth.
由于卫星能力与导弹很好地配对
It looks like it’s also the latest boom in the military industry
似乎它最近在军事工业中也得到了快速发展
as satellite capability pairs nicely with missiles.
七 建造一个火箭的估算成本为5亿至16亿美元
No.7 The estimated cost of building a rocket is between $500 million and $1.6 billion.
建造一个火箭需花费10亿多美元
It costs over a billion dollars to build a rocket.
估计16亿美元左右
Estimates are on the $1.6 billion range,
而每次发射火箭需耗费差不多六千万美元
and close to $60 million every time that rocket is launched.
建造和发射火箭如此昂贵耗时 发射火箭又有风险
With such an expensive, time-consuming and risky endeavor,
为什么世界上最有实力的公司仍痴迷于太空建筑呢?
Why are the most powerful companies in the world obsessed with building in space?
作为老百姓 我们可能会认为是为了移民
As citizens, we might like to believe it’s for colonization,
但事实上 太空军事化即将来临
but the truth is space militarization is on the horizon.
弗拉基米尔·普京就称赞过一个超级火箭
Vladimir Putin has already boasted about a super rocket
这个火箭能携载导弹发射到太空而不会被发现
capable of carrying missiles that can be launched into space undetected,
而美国和中国也试图迅速跟上防御体系
and America and China are quickly trying to catch up with these defense systems.
嗯 可能永远不会发生太空战争
Well, there may never be a space war,
至少希望如此
hopefully at least.
很像冷战那样
Much like the Cold War,
各国将建造很多东西并进行诸多创新
there’s going to be a lot of building and innovating
以挑战自己的能力
to see just how far we can go.
火箭工业领域的创新十分迅速
Innovation in the rocket industry is happening incredibly quickly.
随着可回收火箭的崛起
With the rise of reusable rockets,
SpaceX已将一个火箭的成本
SpaceX has managed to bring down the cost per rocket
成功降低至1亿美元
to under $100 million,
在效率上至少增多了5倍
which is at least a 5 time improvement in efficiency.
八 亿万富豪伊隆·马斯克 杰夫·贝索斯和理查德·布兰森是制造火箭的大玩家
No.8 Billionaires Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos & Richard Branson are the big players building rockets.
关于SpaceX和蓝色起源公司之间竞争的新闻从未间断
The competition between SpaceX and Blue Origin has been making news.
问题是
So the question is
为什么这些亿万富豪如此渴望成功进入太空呢?
why are these billionaires so eager to get to space successfully?
也许他们会说
Well, they might plead the case
他们准备移居火星是为了拯救人类
they’re planning to colonize Mars in order to save humanity.
更有可能的是 这两个精明的商人知道
It’s more likely that these two shrewd businessmen know that
卫星现在到哪都能赚钱
satellites are where it’s at as far as making a profit right now.
如果他们成功了 他们将会成为竞争对手
If they’re successful, they’ll be competing against each other
不仅是承接想向太空发射卫星的私人公司
not just for the business of private companies seeking to launch satellites into space,
还有国防承包商的生意
but defense contractors as well.
毕竟 如果他们能以低于NASA的价格发射一枚火箭
After all, if they can launch a rocket cheaper than NASA,
美国和其他国家自然会将太空国防工作让其负责
America and other countries will simply contract out their space defense work,
让纳税人来缓解政府经营太空项目的压力
taking the strain of government-run space projects off the taxpayer.
但是请记住:回到2016年
But keep in mind: back in 2016,
伊隆·马斯克的一个价值6200万美元的火箭
one of Elon Musk’s $62 million rockets exploded
搭载马克·扎克伯格价值1500万美元的卫星时发生了爆炸
while carrying Mark Zuckerberg’s $150 million satellite.
你知道的 对亿万富豪来说这只是一个普通问题
You know, just your average billionaire problem.
九 太空会改变你的DNA
No.9 Space can change your DNA.
NASA对双胞胎马克和斯科特·凯利进行了研究
NASA conducted a twins study with Mark and Scott Kelly.
斯科特在太空中待了一年
Scott spent a year in space
而马克则作为对照组对象待在地球
while Mark stayed on Earth as a control subject.
科学家们在斯科特返回后对双胞胎进行了跟踪研究
Scientists have been tracking the twins since Scott’s return
并发表了他们的发现
and have released their findings:
斯科特93%的基因在着陆后恢复正常
93% of Scott’s genes return to normal after landing,
也就是说有7%的基因并没有恢复正常
meaning 7% did not.
他的免疫系统的基因发生了变化
These are possible changes in the genes of his immune system,
如DNA修复和骨生成
such as DNA repair, bone formation
以及其他免疫相关的DNA被永久改变了
and other immune-related DNA that has permanently changed
就因为他在太空中待了一年
due to being in space for a year –
如果我们真的要移居太空
something scientists will have to study more
科学家们还要做更多研究
if we are indeed going to colonize space.
但我想有一件事是肯定的
But I guess one thing’s for certain:
如果人类能够杜绝各种灾难事件
empowering any catastrophic event wiping out of humankind
那么人类移居宇宙指日可待
will definitely colonize the universe in time.
十 宇航员们很快将拥有一个跟随他们脚步的悬浮机器头
No.10 Astronauts will soon have a floating robotic head following their every move.
机器人“移动式成员互动伙伴” 也叫CIMON
The Crew Interactive Mobile Companion, also known as CIMON
将被发射到国际空间站
is due to launch to the ISS
成为那里宇航员的学习伙伴
in order to become a learning companion for astronauts there.
该机器人由IBM公司
Created through a partnership between IBM,
德国航空太空中心或DLR
the German Aerospace Center or DLR
以及欧洲太空总署联合创造
and the European Space Agency,
CIMON受训在太空站与宇航员工作对接
CIMON is trained to interact with astronauts at the space station,
帮助宇航员进行修复并对指示作出反应
helping with repairs and responding to commands.
它的小屏幕上有一个会应答的脸部
It will have a responsive face on its little screen
它作为一个漂浮的大脑行动
and act as a floating brain.
它的制造成本不足六百万美元
Costing just under $6 million to build
制造时间不满两年
and a little less than 2 years to create,
CIMON可能是未来太空技术发展的方向
CIMON could be the way of the future for space technology.
十一 美国和中国将在太空竞赛中获胜
No.11 The United States and China are winning the space race.
美国在统治太空的竞赛中仍处于领先地位
The United States remains at the forefront of the race to dominate space,
主要是因为商业企业和政府的共同努力
primarily because of the combined interest of commercial and government efforts.
中国下一步将集中力量进行太空探索
China is next preferring to concentrate on space exploration
将其作为军事力量的中坚力量
as a central force in military power,
事实上在过去十年中 中国已将太空探索的军费预算翻倍
actually doubling its military budget within the last decade for space exploration.
专家们认为 到2025年时
Experts agree that by 2025,
中国将成功实现航天任务
China will have launched a successful space mission.
而俄国在太空竞赛中稳坐第三名的位置
And Russia is a solid third-place contender in the space domination game,
它最近公布称制造了一种高超声速滑翔导弹
recently announcing the creation of a hypersonic glide missile
据俄方称
which would be, as the Russians put it,
它能在战争中实现“隐形”
“invincible” when it comes to games of war.
十二 太空技术给你带来冷冻干燥的食物
No.12 Freeze-drying food was brought to you by space technology.
NASA喜欢冷冻干燥
NASA preferred freeze-drying.
他们需要知道
They needed to figure out
如何保证他们宇航员在太空中的营养
how to keep their astronauts nourished in space.
所以他们进行实验并最终发现
So they went to the lab and finally figured out that
速冻食品可在真空舱内缓慢加热
food that was immediately frozen could then be heated slowly in a vacuum chamber.
并仍能保持它们98%的营养值
and still retain 98% of its nutritional value.
于是这也被应用到普通杂货店的商品 如咖啡
This has been since translated into regular grocery store items, like coffee
以及保持必需疫苗在运输和保存中的冷冻干燥
and the freeze-drying of necessary vaccines in travel and storage.
如果我们没有对前往太空的强烈渴望
Without our longing to get to space,
我们今天的许多发明和医疗创新
many inventions and medical innovations we have today
将永远不会出现
would never have been discovered.
支持太空探索
Supporting space exploration
可能只是造成新材料或新产品的发现
might just lead to the discovery of a new material or product
而那些能使我们所有人受益
that could benefit us all.
军事太空技术已经为人类提供了巨大帮助
Military space technology has been a massive boost for humanity.
只要想想另外一个惊人发明——GPS
Just think another amazing invention is the GPS.
十三 科学家们认为我们真的将移居太空
No.13 Scientists agree we really are going to colonize space.
由于气候改变和自然资源耗竭
Scientists agree that planet Earth will be fine.
科学家们认为地球不会有事
It’s us humans at risk for becoming extinct
而我们人类却有灭绝的危险
due to things like climate change and the depletion of natural resources.
为了将来的后代着想
To allow for future generations,
我们没有办法 只能移居太空
we have no choice but to colonize space.
随着全世界亿万富豪们打开他们的支票簿
With billionaires all over the world opening their checkbooks
来支持所需的研究和技术
to support the study and technology needed,
这将尽在我们的掌握之中
this is well within our grasp.
到目前为止 在银河系已经发现了4000个行星
There have been 4,000 planets discovered so far in the galaxy,
而银河系的每颗恒星都有这样的一颗行星
and every star in the galaxy has a planet of some kind.
发现一颗适合人类居住的行星
It’s only a matter of time
那只是时间的问题
until we discover one that is habitable,
或者我们可以大胆说 星外文明已经存在
or dare we say it, already has a civilization.
在此基础上整个新行业将繁荣发展
With that, entire new industries will bloom.
让我们拿火星做例子
Let’s take Mars for example.
我们将来在火星上
We’ll need pizza on Mars,
需要披萨 采矿 进行娱乐活动
mining on Mars, entertainment on Mars,
在火星上通信 那时你跟地球上的朋友通话
telecom on Mars so you can talk to your friends on Earth
不会有现在这样的巨大延迟
without the massive lag you would have right now.
十四 唐纳德·特朗普认为太空舱是个不错的想法
No.14 Donald Trump thinks a space force is a good idea
它在五年中将花费130亿美元
and it’ll cost $13 billion over 5 years.
不管你是否相信
Believe it or not,
对美国来说 那不是个新想法
this is not a new idea to the United States
那是五角大楼很早之前
and it was one that was on the to-do list
就列在待办清单上的事情
of the Pentagon for a long time
只不过在9·11事件后被搁置一旁了
that fell to the wayside after 9-11.
太空部队将代替一个已经在军队中运作的单位
The Space Force would take over the US Air Force Space Command,
——美国空军太空司令部
a unit already in operation within the military.
但仍有一个国际法制的问题
There is a question of international legality though,
由于美国早在1967年
as the US has signed the Outer Space Treaty
已与许多国家签署了《外太空条约》
with multiple countries back in 1967,
发誓将不会对太空进行军国主义化
vowing not to militarize space.
空军部称
The Air Force says:
太空部队将在五年内耗费130亿美元
“A Space Force would cost $13 billion over 5 years.”
十五 国际太空站耗资1500亿美元
No.15 The International Space Station cost $150 billion.
太空探索的成本不低
The cost of space exploration is not cheap.
建造国际太空站耗费了1500亿美元
The International Space Station cost $150 billion when it was built,
而且它的技术仍不完善
and is still technically incomplete.
伊隆·马斯克花了差不多九千万美元
Elon Musk is likely out close to $90 million
在他最后一次火箭发射失败后可能将出局
after his last failed rocket launch.
但不管需耗费多少钱
But no matter what the cost,
它不会减缓创新者们和各国政府
it’ll not slow down these innovators and countries
填写支票来将他们的梦想变为现实的步伐
from writing the checks to make their dreams a reality.
随着越来越多像蓝色起源和SpaceX这样的公司的参与
As more companies like Blue Origin and SpaceX come into play,
毫无疑问 这对经济或科学的发展
there’s no doubt it can only be a good thing
绝不是一件坏事
for the economy and for science.
现在你已经知道了
Now that you know some nitty-gritty
关于航天工业和太空旅游的一些事实真相
about the space industry and space travel,
我们想知道的是
we’d love to know:
你想搭乘私人火箭前往太空吗?
“Would you take a trip on a private rocket to space? “
在下方评论区留下你的答案
Post your answer in the comments below.
跟往常一样
And as always,
跟着我们观看到最后
for sticking with us all the way to the end
作为一个真正的ALUX网网友
and being a true ALUXER,
你将得到一个额外奖励
you know you get a bonus.
这个就是
Here it is.
十六 宇航员得喝他们自己的回收汗液和尿液
No.16 Astronauts have to drink their own recycled sweat and urine
来防止脱水
to stay hydrated.
对 你没有听错
Yep, you heard that right.
难怪科学家们在太空发现大量水时感到兴奋不已
No wonder scientists were excited to find the largest mass of water up in space.
每发射一磅重量的东西到太空需耗费2000美元
It costs almost $2,000 per pound to launch anything up into space.
那你知道什么占了很大一部分吗?
And you know what weighs a lot?
是水
Water does.
所以 宇航员们在太空站如何保持不脱水?
So, how do the astronauts on the ISS stay hydrated?
通过一个复杂的冷凝系统
Through a complex condensation system
将呼吸和排汗时空气中的水分冷凝
that pulls the moisture out of the air from breath and sweat
并通过过滤系统回收他们洗澡用水和尿液
and a filtration system that recycles their shower water and urine.
这可能对一些人来说会引起不适
While this may seem distasteful to some,
我们确信 只要能漂浮在地球上空
our bet is that just being able to float above the Earth
就能让人类去太空旅游
will be enough to get people to travel into space
也不用担心他们的水从哪里来
without worrying where their water comes from.
感谢ALUX网网友们和我们共度时光
Thank you for spending some time with us, ALUXER.
请一定记得订阅 那样你就不会错过任何一个视频
Make sure to subscribe so you never miss a video.
如果你还想了解更多
If you want more,
精选的视频中有哪些是你喜欢的
we hand-picked these videos you might enjoy
直接前往ALUX.com
or head over to ALUX.com
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for the best in fine living content on the planet.
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and tell your story.

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译制信息
视频概述

航天工业的一些小知识

听录译者

Bingo

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVDc3nfxFBE

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