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世界上15个你从未知晓的事实3 – 译学馆
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世界上15个你从未知晓的事实3

15 Things About Earth You Never Realised

北极光是怎么产生的
• What causes the Aurora Borealis?
人类跑得过霸王龙吗
Could a human have outrun a T-Rex?
下面是你从未听说过的关于地球的15个疯狂事例
Here are 15 insane things you never knew about Earth.
15-地球上最热的地方在利比亚的阿兹兹亚
15 – The hottest spot on Earth is El Azizia, Libya
90年来 这座城市一直保持着58℃或136℉最高温度的记录
• For 90 years this city held the record for the highest temperature at 58 C or 136
最近记录被打破
F. • Recently though the record was stripped
因为来自1922年的读数可能不是很准确
because the reading from 1922 may not have been accurated.
即使目前的记录已交给加利福尼亚的死亡谷 它的温度是56.7℃或134℉
• It is still considered to be one of the hottest places on Earth even if the actual
它(阿兹兹亚)仍被认为是地球上最热的地方之一 直到现在也
record has been handed to Death Valley, California, with a temp of 56.7 or 134 – which is still
很热
pretty hot.
14-南极的沃斯托站保持着最低气温的记录
14 – The lowest temperature was recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica
这个俄罗斯研究站冷到记录过的最高温度
• This Russian research station is so cold that the highest temperature ever recorded
为零下 12.3摄氏度
was -12.3 degrees Celsius.
世界最低温度记录于1983年的这个地方 当时测量数据为零下89.2℃
• The world record lowest temperature was recorded there in 1983, measuring – 89.2C.
这个地方由3.7千米冰层组成 夏天有30人居住
• The place is built on 3.7 kilometres of ice and is home to 30 people in the summer
冬天只有18人
and only 18 in the winter.
即使是你认为你可以忍受这种低温 他们也不会允许任何的观光
Even If you think you can handle the cold they don’t take any visitors.
13-地球磁极的南北互换每几十万年 平均45万年
13 – The magnetic poles of Earth swap around • Every few hundred thousand years, 450
指南针显示的北方实际上是南方
on average, the direction that the compass says is north is really south.
尽管这种变化不是永恒不变的 对于磁场来说部分的转移和弱化
• The change isn’t permanent though, and it’s normal for the field to shift and weaken
却是正常的
in parts.
这被称为“地磁反转” 幸运的是 这并不会影响任何事物
• This is called ‘Geomagnetic Reversal’, and fortunately doesn’t really affect anything
除了你的指南针
except your compass.
尽管有些人喜欢说这是世界末日的征兆
Although some people like to say it is a sign of doomsday.
下一次的磁极反转将在2000年内发生
• The next pole reversal is going to happen in less than 2000 years.
因此你手机上的指南针应用不论何时都可能没有任何用处
So you probably still won’t have any use for that compass app on your iPhone any time soon.
12-莫纳克亚山是世界第一高峰
12 – Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world
尽管珠穆朗玛峰最高峰高出海平面8848米
• Although Mt. Everest has the highest peak – at 8,848 meters above sea level.
莫纳克亚山海平面以上只延伸4205米
Mauna Kea extends only 4,205 meters above sea level.
然而 从山底到山峰测量 在夏威夷的莫纳克亚火山是 10210米
• However, when measured from the base to the peak, Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii is 10,210
超过珠穆朗玛峰一千多米
meters tall, surpassing Mount Everest by over a kilometre.
即使超过一半的山体在海平面以下
Although over half of that is below sea level.
莫纳克亚是一座一百万年前形成的死火山
• Mauna Kea is an inactive volcano that formed over a million years ago.
11-霍巴陨石是落在地球最大的一颗陨石
11 – The Hoba Meteorite is the largest to fall to Earth
它位于南非的纳米比亚 于1920年被偶然发现
• It is located in Namibia in southern Africa and was discovered by chance in 1920.
当时一个叫Jacobus Brits的农场主正在用牛耕地 它突然撞
• Jacobus Brits, a farmer, was ploughing his fields with an ox when it hit a metal
到一个深埋地下的金属物体
object, buried underground.
他发现的陨石重量超过60吨 是世界上最大的单块铁
• The meteorite that he discovered weighs over 60 tonnes, making it the biggest single
它的上下两面都是平坦的
piece of iron in the world, and is flat on the top and bottom – which is probably how
这使它进入地球大气层时保持完整
it stayed intact when it entered Earth’s atmosphere.
它被认为是不到80000年前陨落地球的
• It is thought to have fallen to Earth no longer than 80,000 years ago.
10-某些人类可能能够逃脱霸王龙
10 – Some humans might be able to outrun a T-Rex
估计的霸王龙的最高速度多种多样 但是大部分科学家估计
• The estimated top speeds of a Tyrannosaurus Rex vary but most scientists have estimated
它的速度在每小时15-25英里之间
that it’s between 15-25 miles per hour.
这比以前的设想慢得多 不比人类快多少
• It is slower than previously thought, and not that much quicker than a human.
尽管它仍然能超过我们的大多数
Although it would still outrun most of us.
可能在地球上只有最快的运动员有希望超过霸王龙
• Probably only the fastest athletes on Earth would stand a chance.
尤塞恩·博尔特的世界纪录是每小时28英里
Usain Bolt clocked in at 28 miles per hour for his world record.
但是如果你是仓皇逃命 加上先起步
• Although if you were running for your life and had a head start, you might have
那你就有可能一直在霸王龙前边直到它身体累垮
a chance of staying ahead of the T-Rex until it tired out – that’s if you don’t run
这样的前提是你不会用尽力气
out of steam first.
9-马里亚纳海沟是海洋最深处
9 – The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean
它位于太平洋离日本海岸不远处 它的最深的部分
• It lies in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan and its deepest part is more than
在海平面以下10000米 也就是一万米
10,000 metres below the sea – that’s 10 kilometres.
这部分海沟被称为“挑战者号深渊” 由皇家海军舰艇挑战者命名
• This part of the trench is known as ‘Challenger Deep’, named after the HMS Challenger, which
他们在19世纪70年代首次测量这个海沟
first measured the trench in the 1870s.
在2012年《泰坦尼克号》的导演詹姆斯·卡梅隆乘坐“深海挑战者号”独自潜水到
• In 2012, Titanic director James Cameron made a solo dive in the ‘Deepsea Challenger’
10898米 为单人潜水记录
to 10,898 metres – the record for a solo descent.
8-地球上最干旱的地方在南极洲麦克莫多站干谷是
8 – The driest place on Earth is in Antarctica • The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a desert with
一个几乎没有冰或雪的沙漠——偏偏在南极洲
almost no ice or snow – in Antarctica of all places.
这些状况是由“重力风”造成 而且这里只有少量
• These conditions are caused by ‘Katabatic Winds’, and there are only small ponds of
小洼 其含盐量比海水还高三倍
liquid that are three times saltier than the ocean.
干谷已经将近两百万年未下过雨
• It hasn’t rained in the Dry Valleys for nearly 2 million years.
所有的这些以及极端湿度使它成为地球上和
All this combined with the extreme humidity makes it the most similar conditions on Earth
火星最相近的环境
to those on Mars.
7-最老的化石有35亿岁了
7 – The oldest fossils are 3.5 billions years old
这些化石并非动物而是显微镜下的细菌
• These don’t belong to an animal but instead to microscopic bacteria – which
考虑到那时候地球只有10亿年 这是个奇迹!
is amazing considering the Earth was only a billion years old by that stage.
要准确地决定这些化石属不属于生命形式是有困难的
• It is difficult to determine exactly if the fossils belonged to life forms – to
对于非专业的人来说 它们就像是石头的花纹
the untrained eye they might just seem like patterns.
正因如此 究竟哪块是最古老的 说法层出不穷
• Because of this there are various claims as to what the oldest one actually is.
在澳大利亚 发掘出的岩石可追溯到34.5亿年前 最近更多
In Australia, formations were found, dating back 3.45 billion years; more recently microfossils
加拿大的微化石被认为是37.7亿年前的
in Canada are thought to be 3.77 billion years old.
6-地球大气层延伸一万千米
6 – The Earth’s atmosphere extends to 10,000 km
虚拟线 科学家们称之为卡门线 在高度大概一百千米处测出
• The imaginary line, which scientists call the Karman line, is measured at about 100km
即62英里
or 62 miles.
这是用来界定地球和太空的 然而那并不是大气层
This is what is used to separate Earth from space – however that is not where the atmosphere
的终点
ends.
大气层由五层组成 每层越来越大同时更稀薄
• It is made up of five layers and each layer gets larger but also a lot thinner.
第五层叫做外逸层 指从海平面以上700千米
The fifth layer, called the exosphere, starts 700 km above sea level, and ends at about
到10000千米的范围
10,000 km.
它只由少量氢和氦组成 这一层还是大多数卫星轨道所在地
• It is made up of only low amounts of hydrogen and helium, and is where most satellites orbit.
5-死海是陆地最低点毗邻约旦 以色列
5 – The Dead Sea is the lowest land point • The Dead Sea, which borders, Jordan, Israel
和巴勒斯坦的死海低于海平面超过430米
and Palestine, is over 430 metres below sea level.
死海含盐量是海水的9.6倍 因此
• The water there is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean, so it doesn’t support plant
没有任何植物和动物生存其中 由此称为“死海”
and animal life, which is why it’s called the ‘Dead Sea’.
事实上富含盐和矿物质的特点 几千年来吸引了大量旅客
• In fact the high salt level and minerals has attracted tourists for thousands of years
因此这被认为是第一健康度假圣地
– so it could be considered the first health resort.
4-最老的宗教建筑坐落于如今的土耳其
4 – The oldest religious structure is located in modern day Turkey
建筑名为哥贝克力石阵 它是一座建造于大约10000年前的
• Named ‘Gobekli Tepe’, it is an ancient site with of a temple that was built around
寺庙的古遗址
10,000 years.
这里被认为是第一处拜神的地方
• This is believed to be the first such place contracted as a place for worship.
尽管考古学家并不确定这里举行的是哪种活动
Although archaeologists aren’t sure exactly what kind of activities took place there.
这个建筑比金字塔还要古老 比巨石阵老了6000年
• The structure is older than the pyramids and 6,000 years older than Stonehenge.
文明如何铸造的这些大块T形柱子无从得知 但是
It is not known how the civilisation constructed the large t-shaped pillars – but still gives
它仍能给我们留下早期人类历史的线索
us clues to the early history of humans.
3-我们只识别了大约所有物种的10-15%
3 – We’ve only identified around 10-15 per cent of all species
科学家们甚至都不能确定到底总共有多少物种
• Scientists aren’t even certain of how many species that there are in total – but
这个数量大约在五百万到一千万之间
it is somewhere between 5 and 10 million.
这其中 人类已发现大约120万种物种
• Of those, humans have discovered approximately 1.2 million species.
这只包括海洋生物的10%
This includes only 10 per cent of life in the ocean.
这也就意味着仍然有上百万的动植物
• That means there are potentially millions of species of plants and animals that we don’t
还没有被我们发现
know about yet.
很多物种可能是像昆虫一样的小生命
Many of these would be smaller life such as insects.
不幸的是甚至在我们发现之前物种都有可能濒临灭绝
• Unfortunately species could become extinct before we even find them.
2-泰国猪鼻蝙蝠是最小的哺乳动物
2 – Kitt’s Hog-Nosed Bat is the smallest mammal
它也叫大黄蜂蝙蝠 从头到脚全身长度只有3厘米
• Also known as the bumblebee bat, it only grows to a length of 3 cm from head to toe.
这使它成为长度最小的哺乳动物
This makes it the smallest mammal by length.
它在20世纪70年代被发现 是在泰国和缅甸的一些小地方
• It was discovered in the 1970s and is found in small areas of Thailand and Burma,
的洞穴内找到的
living in caves.
只有小几千只蝙蝠留在这些地方 因为它们的栖息地
• There are only a few thousand left in these parts because their habitats have been
已经被旅游者破坏 也因为周围森林被砍伐
disturbed by tourists, and due to destruction of nearby forests.
泰国猪鼻蝙蝠并不是最轻的哺乳动物 最轻的是伊特鲁里亚鼩
• Kitti’s Hog-Nosed bat isn’t the lightest mammal – that would be the Etruscan Shrew,
它的平均重量为1.8磅
weighing an average of 1.8 pounds.
1地球上有两种极光
1 – There are two Auroras that occur on Earth
北极光最为熟悉
• The Northern Lights or Aurora borealis is the most well known of these, but there
但是也有南极光
is also the ‘Aurora Australis’ or Southern Lights.
两者几近相同都出现在地球磁极处
• Both of these are nearly identical as they occur near the Earth’s magnetic poles
一个在北一个在南
– one in the north one in the south.
观看北极光最好的地方在加拿大和欧洲北部
• The best places to see the northern lights are in Northern Canada and Europe, in countries
例如挪威和冰岛等国家
such as Norway and Iceland.
看南极光的话 你可能需要勇敢面对南极
• To see the ‘Aurora Australis’ you might need to brave Antarctica, although it
尽管从澳大利亚和新西兰的部分地区可能会看到
is possible to see from parts of Australia and New Zealand.
这些光束由太阳进入地球大气层时产生的带电微粒造成
• These lights are caused by charged particles from the Sun that enters the Earth’s atmosphere.
不同的气体碰撞产生不同的颜色
Different gases collide which is what results in the various colours.

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人类能够比霸王龙跑的还快吗,地球磁极会南北互换吗,是时候科普一下了

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