• What causes the Aurora Borealis?
Could a human have outrun a T-Rex?
Here are 15 insane things you never knew about Earth.
15 – The hottest spot on Earth is El Azizia, Libya
• For 90 years this city held the record for the highest temperature at 58 C or 136
F. • Recently though the record was stripped
because the reading from 1922 may not have been accurated.
• It is still considered to be one of the hottest places on Earth even if the actual
record has been handed to Death Valley, California, with a temp of 56.7 or 134 – which is still
14 – The lowest temperature was recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica
• This Russian research station is so cold that the highest temperature ever recorded
was -12.3 degrees Celsius.
• The world record lowest temperature was recorded there in 1983, measuring – 89.2C.
• The place is built on 3.7 kilometres of ice and is home to 30 people in the summer
and only 18 in the winter.
Even If you think you can handle the cold they don’t take any visitors.
13 – The magnetic poles of Earth swap around • Every few hundred thousand years, 450
on average, the direction that the compass says is north is really south.
• The change isn’t permanent though, and it’s normal for the field to shift and weaken
这被称为“地磁反转” 幸运的是 这并不会影响任何事物
• This is called ‘Geomagnetic Reversal’, and fortunately doesn’t really affect anything
except your compass.
Although some people like to say it is a sign of doomsday.
• The next pole reversal is going to happen in less than 2000 years.
So you probably still won’t have any use for that compass app on your iPhone any time soon.
12 – Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world
• Although Mt. Everest has the highest peak – at 8,848 meters above sea level.
Mauna Kea extends only 4,205 meters above sea level.
然而 从山底到山峰测量 在夏威夷的莫纳克亚火山是 10210米
• However, when measured from the base to the peak, Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii is 10,210
meters tall, surpassing Mount Everest by over a kilometre.
Although over half of that is below sea level.
• Mauna Kea is an inactive volcano that formed over a million years ago.
11 – The Hoba Meteorite is the largest to fall to Earth
• It is located in Namibia in southern Africa and was discovered by chance in 1920.
当时一个叫Jacobus Brits的农场主正在用牛耕地 它突然撞
• Jacobus Brits, a farmer, was ploughing his fields with an ox when it hit a metal
object, buried underground.
• The meteorite that he discovered weighs over 60 tonnes, making it the biggest single
piece of iron in the world, and is flat on the top and bottom – which is probably how
it stayed intact when it entered Earth’s atmosphere.
• It is thought to have fallen to Earth no longer than 80,000 years ago.
10 – Some humans might be able to outrun a T-Rex
• The estimated top speeds of a Tyrannosaurus Rex vary but most scientists have estimated
that it’s between 15-25 miles per hour.
• It is slower than previously thought, and not that much quicker than a human.
Although it would still outrun most of us.
• Probably only the fastest athletes on Earth would stand a chance.
Usain Bolt clocked in at 28 miles per hour for his world record.
• Although if you were running for your life and had a head start, you might have
a chance of staying ahead of the T-Rex until it tired out – that’s if you don’t run
out of steam first.
9 – The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean
• It lies in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan and its deepest part is more than
10,000 metres below the sea – that’s 10 kilometres.
• This part of the trench is known as ‘Challenger Deep’, named after the HMS Challenger, which
first measured the trench in the 1870s.
• In 2012, Titanic director James Cameron made a solo dive in the ‘Deepsea Challenger’
to 10,898 metres – the record for a solo descent.
8 – The driest place on Earth is in Antarctica • The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a desert with
almost no ice or snow – in Antarctica of all places.
• These conditions are caused by ‘Katabatic Winds’, and there are only small ponds of
liquid that are three times saltier than the ocean.
• It hasn’t rained in the Dry Valleys for nearly 2 million years.
All this combined with the extreme humidity makes it the most similar conditions on Earth
to those on Mars.
7 – The oldest fossils are 3.5 billions years old
• These don’t belong to an animal but instead to microscopic bacteria – which
is amazing considering the Earth was only a billion years old by that stage.
• It is difficult to determine exactly if the fossils belonged to life forms – to
the untrained eye they might just seem like patterns.
正因如此 究竟哪块是最古老的 说法层出不穷
• Because of this there are various claims as to what the oldest one actually is.
在澳大利亚 发掘出的岩石可追溯到34.5亿年前 最近更多
In Australia, formations were found, dating back 3.45 billion years; more recently microfossils
in Canada are thought to be 3.77 billion years old.
6 – The Earth’s atmosphere extends to 10,000 km
虚拟线 科学家们称之为卡门线 在高度大概一百千米处测出
• The imaginary line, which scientists call the Karman line, is measured at about 100km
or 62 miles.
This is what is used to separate Earth from space – however that is not where the atmosphere
• It is made up of five layers and each layer gets larger but also a lot thinner.
The fifth layer, called the exosphere, starts 700 km above sea level, and ends at about
• It is made up of only low amounts of hydrogen and helium, and is where most satellites orbit.
5 – The Dead Sea is the lowest land point • The Dead Sea, which borders, Jordan, Israel
and Palestine, is over 430 metres below sea level.
• The water there is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean, so it doesn’t support plant
and animal life, which is why it’s called the ‘Dead Sea’.
• In fact the high salt level and minerals has attracted tourists for thousands of years
– so it could be considered the first health resort.
4 – The oldest religious structure is located in modern day Turkey
• Named ‘Gobekli Tepe’, it is an ancient site with of a temple that was built around
• This is believed to be the first such place contracted as a place for worship.
Although archaeologists aren’t sure exactly what kind of activities took place there.
• The structure is older than the pyramids and 6,000 years older than Stonehenge.
It is not known how the civilisation constructed the large t-shaped pillars – but still gives
us clues to the early history of humans.
3 – We’ve only identified around 10-15 per cent of all species
• Scientists aren’t even certain of how many species that there are in total – but
it is somewhere between 5 and 10 million.
• Of those, humans have discovered approximately 1.2 million species.
This includes only 10 per cent of life in the ocean.
• That means there are potentially millions of species of plants and animals that we don’t
know about yet.
Many of these would be smaller life such as insects.
• Unfortunately species could become extinct before we even find them.
2 – Kitt’s Hog-Nosed Bat is the smallest mammal
• Also known as the bumblebee bat, it only grows to a length of 3 cm from head to toe.
This makes it the smallest mammal by length.
• It was discovered in the 1970s and is found in small areas of Thailand and Burma,
living in caves.
• There are only a few thousand left in these parts because their habitats have been
disturbed by tourists, and due to destruction of nearby forests.
• Kitti’s Hog-Nosed bat isn’t the lightest mammal – that would be the Etruscan Shrew,
weighing an average of 1.8 pounds.
1 – There are two Auroras that occur on Earth
• The Northern Lights or Aurora borealis is the most well known of these, but there
is also the ‘Aurora Australis’ or Southern Lights.
• Both of these are nearly identical as they occur near the Earth’s magnetic poles
– one in the north one in the south.
• The best places to see the northern lights are in Northern Canada and Europe, in countries
such as Norway and Iceland.
• To see the ‘Aurora Australis’ you might need to brave Antarctica, although it
is possible to see from parts of Australia and New Zealand.
• These lights are caused by charged particles from the Sun that enters the Earth’s atmosphere.
Different gases collide which is what results in the various colours.