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女人比男人挣钱少的15个原因

15 Reasons Why Women Earn Less Money Than Men

女人比男人挣钱少的15个原因
15 Reasons Why Women Earn Less Than Men
欢迎来到ALUX网站 这里是未来亿万富豪获得灵感的地方
Welcome to Alux.com, the place where future billionaires come to get inspired.
ALUX网网友们 大家好!这又是一个的确有争议的视频
Hello Aluxers! This is going to be another one of those really divisive videos.
主要是因为我们会给你们提供事实
Mostly because we will provide you with facts
而不是讲你们认同的故事
and not the type of narrative that goes well with your feelings.
近几年 女权运动愈演愈烈
In the last couple of years, a strong feminist movement has has begun
随之越来越多的言论被传播开来
spreading more and more narratives.
其中有的言论是假的 没有数据支持
Some of them, kind of false without looking at the data.
真相是在钱的问题上没有性别差异
The truth is there’s no gender gap in terms of money.
做同样的工作 女性的工资不会少于男性的工资
Women do not get paid less than men do for doing the same job.
这不是经济学的规律
That’s not how the economy works.
而是女性和男性做出的选择不一样
That said there are several differences about the choices women make versus men,
这一点只有观察大规模的人群后 才能发现
which are only visible if you look at the large population level.
你最常听到的说法是
The most common saying you’ll hear is that women
女性的工资只是男性的77%
women make 77 cents for every dollar a man makes,
实际上这是假的
which is actually false.
这个数字是有人把美国全部女性一年的工资
In order to get that number, they total the amount of money
和全部男性一年的工资
all women in the United States made in one year and
分别做了统计
all the money men made,
然后比较两个总数
and they compared the two amounts.
结果是男性工资总数
Turns out the total amount for men was greater than
比女性工资总数多 然后就有了这个结论
the total amount of females and they ran with it.
这种简单的比较没有考虑到以下几点:
What this way to simplistic comparison fails to take into account are the following:
工作时长 分工 加班时间 休闲时间及其它
the number of hours worked, specialization, overtime, leisure time and more.
我们将根据统计数据列举证明
We’ve put together this list in order to prove based on statistical data
女性平均挣得比男性少
that women earn less money than men on average,
是因为女性和他们男性同胞的侧重点不同
because they have different priorities than their male counterparts
在大多数情况下 挣钱少是女性自己的选择
and in most cases they choose to do so.
我们也不能忘记我们的社会
We also can’t forget that our society is structured in a way
是按规则建立的
where this has always been the norm
而强大的女性则忙于粉碎这些规则
and it’s up to strong and powerful women to shatter that norm to pieces.
乍一看 这个视频可能对你有所不敬
On first glance you might be offended by this video,
但如果你是一个坚强的女性
but if you’re a strong woman,
你会看完这个清单 看看和你的策略之间的差距
you’ll look through this list to see if you can identify gaps in your strategy.
如果你的目的就是赚得比现在多
And if your main goal is to increase the amount of money you’re being paid,
一定不要掉到这些陷阱里
all you have to do is make sure you don’t fall into any of these traps.
对于那些想提高薪水
This video will also be beneficial to men
想赚更多钱的男性
who struggle to increase their salary
这个视频也有用
or to look to generate more money.
如果你第一次观看你们的节目 欢迎你
If you’re new here, welcome.
一定要订阅我们的频道 在instagram关注@ALUX
Be sure to subscribe and follow us on Instagram @ALUX.
我们会尽力把节目做好
We’ll not be holding back any punches.
一些大学为分析这些问题做了研究
we’ve based this video on multiple studies and data we could find from universities,
我们根据他们的研究和数据制作了本视频
which tries to break down this issue.
下面是女性比男性挣钱少的15个原因
Here are 15 reasons why women earn less than men.
如果你想知道该怎么做 请看完这个视频
And watch until the end if you want to find out what you can do about it.
1 女性通常会在较低收入的行业工作
1. Women typically specialize in fields that pay less than men do.
这非常容易理解
This is pretty straightforward.
经济是靠供求关系的原则来运转的
The economy works based on the laws of supply and demand.
需求多的行业的工资会比其它行业工资高
The industries where there is more of a demand will pay better than others.
例如 乔治城大学对学生的专业
For example, Georgetown University did a study on the highest and lowest
最高工资和最低工资进行了一项研究
paying majors that students specialize in.
工资最高的五个专业依次为:
The five highest paying were in this order:
1 石油工程 87%男性
1 Petroleum Engineering, 87% male
2 医药科学 52%女性
2 Pharmaceutical Sciences, 52% female
3 数学和计算机科学 67%男性
3 Mathematics and Computer Science, 67% male
4 航空航天工程 88%男性
4 Aerospace Engineering, 88% male
5 化学工程 72%男性
5 Chemical Engineering, 72% male
这里尤其要注意到的是在五个高收入专业之中
What’s important to notice here is that out of the five highest paying majors,
只有一项女性多于男性
women only out represent men in one of five and
即使在这一项里 女性多出的比例也很小
even there it’s just by a very small percentage.
同样研究表明五个工资最低的专业是:
The same study looked at the five worst paying college majors as follows:
1 咨询和心理 74%女性
1 Counseling and Psychology, 74% female
2 早期儿童教育 97%女性
2 Early childhood education, 97% female
3 神学和宗教 66%男性
3 Theology and Religious Vocations, 66% male
4 人类社会服务和社区管理 81%女性
4 Human Services and Community Organization, 81% female
5 社会工作 88%女性
5 Social Work, 88% female
这几个工资最低的专业只有一项不是女性占主流
The worst paying college majors are dominated by women in all but one category.
即使在同一个职业
Even if they go for the same profession,
以护士为例
let’s take for example, nurses,
男性通常去工资较高的部门
the male’s tend to gravitate more toward the better paying specializations
平均工作时间也比女性长
and work longer hours on average than women.
2 女性比男性较晚进入职场
2. Women enter the workforce later than men.
男性获得第一份工作——通常是低薪工作
On average, there’s a 1.4 year gap between the time men get their first job,
平均比女性开始工作早1年8个月
usually a low-paying one, than women to begin with.
这可以解释为(男性)拥有更多的工作经验
This translates into more work experience,
这与后来获得更高的收入有相关性
which correlates to higher paying wages in the future.
这也被称为育儿偏见
This is also called the parenting bias,
因为通常父母会对女儿的保护
because parents are usually more protective of their daughters
要比对儿子对保护多一些
than they are of their sons.
3 女性平均工作时长比男性短
3. Women work on average fewer hours than men.
2015年一项研究表明 在就职人员中
A 2015 study showed that on average between employed men and women,
平均每月男性比女性多工作14小时
the men worked 14 hours more per month than women do.
也就是男性每天要多工作40几分钟
That’s an average of 40ish minutes per day build extra by the men.
没有提前通知男性也愿意多工作几小时
Men are also more willing to work longer hours without advance notice,
而女性通常不愿意
which women usually stay away from.
所有这些细小的信息加在一起
All these tiny bits of info add up
在我们陈述这些论点的时候 你就会看到
and you’ll see as we progress through the list
如果你整体看一下并考虑到所有因素
that if you go through it and account for all of them,
基本上性别不会造成工资差异
there basically is no pay gap because of gender.
4 通常女性的竞争力不如男性
4. Women are typically less competitive than men.
斯坦福大学做的一项研究表明
A study done at Stanford University shows
对于竞争 冒险和利他主义 女性和男性的态度截然不同
that women have different attitudes than men toward competition, risk and altruism.
一般而言 女性更愿意被喜欢而不是赢
On average, women want to be liked more than they do to win.
这些有趣的发现表明
The interesting findings of the study showed that
那女性被迫去竞争时
when women were forced to compete,
她们实际上在实验中获胜的次数和男性是一样的
they actually won the experiment the same amount of times as men did.
所以我们这里讨论的是选择是否去竞争
So we’re dealing here with a choice of whether or not to compete
而不是生理上缺乏某种技能
and not with a biological lack of skill.
5 获得新工作时 女性要求的工资少于男性
5. Women ask for less money when getting a new job than men do.
要考虑的另一件事情是
Another thing to consider is the willingness to accept anything
第一件工作的意愿
that is put on the table for the first job.
女性比男性更倾向于保住这个职位
Women are more open to securing a position than men,
男性更愿意推迟接受这项工作
while men would postpone accepting a position
他们喜欢去找工资更高的工作
in favour of shopping around for alternatives with better pay.
女性接受现状 因为她们要让时间证明自己的能力
Women accept the current terms with the idea that they’ll prove themselves over time.
这观念的差异导致的男性和女性巨大的差异
This leads to a big percentage gap between men and women.
说到第一次的薪水
When it comes to their first salary,
通常女性需要3年才能赶上男性
usually taking women up to three years to catch up.
男性会更主动地商谈他们的初始工资
Men tend to negotiate their starting salaries more aggressively.
研究表明 对于第一份工作 在相同的专业中
And a study showed that on average among highly educated men with the same specialization,
高学历男性的工资平均要比女性多4000美元
they earned up to $4,000 more than women in their first position.
刚才说过女性更愿意被喜欢而不是去赢
Going back to women typically wanting to be liked rather than to win,
有的女性可能会羞于进行有关工资要求的谈判
some might shy away from standing the ground in negotiations and demanding their worth,
但是如果你想要减少差距
but if you want to make up the difference,
这是你必须做的事情
that’s what you got to do.
6 女性要求加薪的可能性比男性少
6. Women are less likely to ask for a raise than men.
男性要求加薪的可能性比女性多4倍
Men are four times more likely to ask for a raise.
一般而言女性更愿意等着涨工资
On average, women like to wait to be offered a salary increase
而不是主动要求涨工资
instead of asking for one beforehand.
即使她们真的要求涨工资
Even if they do ask for them, women are 25% less likely
女性涨工资的可能性要比男性少25%
to get a raise than men do,
因为她们不愿意冒失去工作的危险
because of their willingness to risk losing the job.
通常女性觉得要求加薪的谈判很难
Women often see pay raise negotiations as difficult,
通常也不愿意被人看得太好胜
and usually don’t want to be seen as aggressive.
然而 好胜并知道自己的价值所在实际上是解决问题的方法
However, being aggressive and knowing what you’re worth is actually the solution to the problem.
7 通常女性不像男性那么看重收入
7. Women typically don’t prioritize earnings as high as men do.
2015年一项有关女性内科医生的研究
A 2015 study on female physicians
表明女性更看重同事关系和对私人时间的掌控
showed that women are prioritizing collegiality and control over personal time
而不是涨薪
rather than substantial pay
一般不像男性那样对职场地位的提升感兴趣
and are on average less interested in advancing in the corporate world than men.
通常女性的本性是比男性更关心家人之间的关系
Typically by nature, women care more about family relationships and
以及她们与同事之间的关系
the relationships they have with co-workers than men do.
如果你从宏观的角度对她们进行分析
If you analyze them from a macro perspective,
这样说有点怪 但男性并不像女性那样在意友谊
it’s weird to say this but men care less about friendships than women do.
这可以解释为要得到更高的薪水
And this translates to higher pay and a willingness to be unliked by your team
如果你要得到更高的收益 要情愿自己不受团队欢迎
if it would further your bottom line.
8 女性度假时间通常要比男性度假时间长
8. Women typically vacation more than men do.
女性平均每10个月休一次假
Women take a vacation on average every 10 months,
而男性是12个月休一次
while men every 12 months.
似乎男性工作是为了得高分
It seems that while men play the game for the high score,
而女性对工作能提供的利益和奖励更感兴趣
women are more interested in the benefits and the rewards the game has to offer.
事实上女性在这一点上是做对了
Actually this is one of those situations where women really got it right.
生活就是各种经历
Life is about experiences,
不只是让银行的账户不断增加
not just getting as much money as possible in the bank account,
但是这一点的确加大了(男女)收入的差异
but this does add to the perceived difference in earnings.
9 女性更愿意离职去照料家庭
9. Women are more likely to leave work to take care of family.
这又一次涉及到侧重点的不同
It boils down to priorities once again.
女性比男性更看重家人
Family is more important to women than men,
当提到为家人做事时 他们采用的方法也稍有不同
and their approach is slightly different when it comes to providing for them.
男性认为为家人提供安全感和资源
While men typically think that providing security and resources to the group
是最重要的
is the most important item on the list,
而女性最看重对家庭的照顾
women place attention at the top.
10 第一个孩子出生后 女性会比男性减少工作
10. After the first child is born, women scale back on work more than men do.
通常第一个孩子出生后 女性
Typically after having the first child, women are more likely to shift
从全职工作转为兼职的可能性比男性多
from a full-time job to a part-time job than men do.
马萨诸塞大学的一项研究
A study at the University of Massachusetts
发现当男性成为父亲时
found that the average man earns a pay bump of more than 6%
其平均工资会激增6%
when he becomes a father.
相反 每增加一个孩子 女性的工资会减少4%
Conversely they found that women’s earnings decrease by 4% for every child they had.
这也是与主动参与
This again has to do with a choice of being actively involved and
以及双方对孩子生活的侧重点的看法不同有关
what each of the parties think is more important for the child’s life.
男性会提供安全感而女性会提供照顾
While men will provide security, women will provide attention.
11 同样要注意的是 孩子出生后女性选择比男性投入更多的时间照料孩子
11. On the same note, women choose to dedicate more time than men to the child after they’re born.
我们生活的社会里 通常女性在生完孩子后
We live in a society where women after giving birth,
对如下工作 通常女性会投入的更多:
typically choose to dedicate themselves more to the child than men do as follows:
规划孩子日程表 孩子生病时照料孩子
managing kids schedule, taking care of them when they’re sick
做家务
and household chores.
被调查家庭中的47% 女性做得多一些
In 47 percent of the cases, women do more.
其中仅有6% 男性做得多一些
In only 6 percent of the cases, men do more.
大约47%被调查家庭中
And then around 47 percent of those cases,
夫妻共同分担
they share the burden equally.
12 女性平均退休年龄比男性早
12. Women retire on average earlier than men do from the workforce.
50年前 女性退休年龄平均比男性早15年
50 years ago women retired on average 15 years earlier than men did.
从那以后这个差距一直在减小
This gap has been narrowing ever since.
但是即使现在 女性的平均退休年龄也比男性早2.2年
But even today women on average retired 2.2 years earlier than their male counterparts.
这是另一个被忽略的因素
This is just yet another overlooked element.
这就解释了为什么男性的一生比女性的一生挣得多
That contributes to why men will earn more money in their lifetime than women.
13 通常女性做的危险工作比男性少
13. Women typically work less dangerous jobs.
尽管女性占一半的劳动力
Despite the fact that women make up for half of the labor force,
男性在工作中的死亡率要比女性多11倍
men are 11 times more likely to die doing their jobs.
这个统计还没有算上军队里的
And this statistic does not include the military.
在有生命危险的工作场所 男性占绝对多数
Men are overly dominating workplaces
这一点也是男性工资较高的原因
where human life could be in danger and this translates to higher pay as well.
14 有的国家 比如美国 不提供带薪产假
14. In the US, for example, the state doesn’t offer paid maternity leave.
据我们所知 只有下面几个国家
To the best of our knowledge, here are the only countries in the world
不提供带薪产假:
who don’t offer paid maternity leave:
斯威士兰 莱索托 巴布亚新几内亚和美国
Swaziland, Lesotho, Papua New Guinea and the United States of America.
因为女性孕育孩子 选择在孩子出生后照料孩子
Since women are the child bearers and choose to actively take care of the child after it’s born,
她们经济收入直接受到这些法规的影响
they are directly impacted by this legislation from a financial perspective.
世界其它地方都有带薪产假解决这个问题 美国在这方面还需做出努力
The rest of the world has figured this out, but the U.S. still has some catching up to do.
15 性别歧视仍然是个问题
15. Gender discrimination is still a real thing.
但是女性掌权时也存在性别歧视
But it happens when women are in charge as well.
研究表明女性比男性雇用其他女性的可能性要大
A study shows that women are more likely to hire other women than men are.
实际上两性都存在这种性别歧视
This type of discrimination is actually quite even out between the two genders,
如果你要进入职场 需要意识到这一点
and you need to be aware of this if you’re entering the workforce.
真相是女性和男性一样有能力 有智慧
The truth is women are as able, as intelligent and
情感上也愿意和男性赚一样的钱
emotionally ready to earn as much as men do.
但是因为侧重点
However, there is a difference in priorities,
以及想要达到的目标不同
and what on a large scale each gender would like to achieve.
你知道这个问题是交互式的 ALUX网网友们
And you know this is meant to be a conversation. Aluxers,
你认为通常女性为什么会比男性挣钱少呢?
why do you think on average women earn less than men?
这真的是事实吗?请在我们的评论区作出评论
Is it even true? Let us know in the comments.
作为看到结尾的一个奖赏 现在是送给你的彩蛋
As a reward for watching with us until the end, here’s your bonus fact.
16 你越和蔼 你挣钱的可能性就越少
16. The more agreeable you are, the less you’re likely to earn.
这对于男性和女性都适用
This applies to both men and women and
我们想要参阅约旦·彼得森对此问题进行的广泛研究
we’d like to reference Jordan Peterson for his extensive research on this.
也许你在Channel 4他做的访谈节目中见过他
You might know him from the interview he did on channel 4.
如果你还没有看到他做的节目 去看一下吧
If you haven’t seen the full thing, go watch it.
社会应该争取给所有人平等的机会
A society should strive for the equality of opportunity,
而不是平等的收入
not the equality of outcome.
你应该获得同样的机会去竞争
You should be given the same chance to compete,
但是我们不打算去改变这个规律 所以你的优势是不平等的
but we’re not going to bend the rules, so you get an unfair advantage.
只想看看谁能坚持看到最后
Just to see who’s been watching till the end,
请在评论区写下“机会”
please write “opportunity” in the comments.
我们会一如既往的尽可能多的回复评论
And as always we’ll try to reply to as many comments as possible.
ALUX网网友们 感谢与我们共度这段时光
Thank you for spending some time with us Aluxers.
一定要给视频点赞并订阅我们的频道 这样你就不会错过新的视频节目了
Make sure to LIKE and SUBSCRIBE, so you never miss another video.
我们还精选了一些视频
We also hand-picked these videos
供您接下来观看
which we recommend you watch next.
感谢成为ALUX网的网友 我们明天见
Thank you for being an Aluxer and we’ll see you back tomorrow.

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译制信息
视频概述

女人比男人挣钱少的15个原因 是因为社会地位不平等吗? 其实不是!

听录译者

greenhoodie

翻译译者

greenhoodie

审核员

审核员DW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kB8XUPrsg_Q

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