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5分钟讲解未来的15个太空计划 – 译学馆
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5分钟讲解未来的15个太空计划

15 Futuristic Space Mission Concepts in 5 Minutes

如果我们发射一个着陆器在冥王星上跳来跳去会怎样?
What if we sent a lander to hop around on Pluto?
或者发射一个饼状开矿机器人为我们勘测小行星?
Or a pancake-shaped robot to mine asteroids for us?
好吧 或许某天我们可以做到
Well, someday, we might.
在四月 美国国家航空航天局宣布他们已经投资了15个新的空间任务的想法
In April, NASA announced that they’d funded 15 new space mission concepts,
作为先进概念研究所(简称NIAC)的一部分
as part of their Innovative Advanced Concepts program, or NIAC.
这些想法仍在早期规划阶段 所以在很多情况下
These concepts are still in the very early planning stages, so in a lot of cases,
我们知道更多的是关于每个计划的目标
we know more about the goals of each project
而不是研究人员将如何完成这些目标
than how the researchers are going to accomplish those goals.
并且至多也只有极少数的项目会被充分开发
And at most only a few of them will ever be fully developed.
但先进概念研究所的重点是为一些听起来如科幻小说的设想提供资金 如果研究人员
But the whole point of NIAC is funding some science fiction-y sounding ideas, and if researchers
想出如何实现它们 美国国家航空航天局就会获得一些非常有用的技术
figure out how to do them, then NASA has some amazingly useful technology.
今年 美国国家航空航天局投资的15个新概念项目分为四类:
The 15 concepts NASA’s funding this year all fall into four main categories:
推进 探索火星 探索太阳系其他部分 以及小行星采矿
propulsion, exploring Mars, exploring the rest of the solar system, and asteroid mining.
一种新的宇宙飞船推进方式将包括发射一束巨大的 10公里宽的激光
One new way to propel spacecraft would involve shining a giant, 10-kilometer-wide set of
从地表射到宇航器太阳能板给它提供足够飞行750亿公里的动力
lasers from Earth to the spacecraft’s solar panels, giving it enough power to travel 75
—这比到海王星远15倍多—仅在十二年内就可以实现
billion kilometers — more than 15 times farther than Neptune — in just 12 years.
另一组研究人员 想要利用马赫效应
Another group of researchers wants to take advantage of what are called Mach effects,
这是一种物理学概念 你可以利用加速物体的质量
which is an idea in physics where an accelerating object’s mass fluctuates
以微小的方式波动这点 来向前推进它
in tiny ways that you can use to propel it forward.
问题是 马赫效应仍停留在理论上 还没有真正被证明有效
Problem is, Mach effects are still very theoretical and haven’t really been proven to work yet,
但如果这个计划可行 依靠马赫效应推进的宇航器将不需要供给
but if this project works, a spacecraft propelled by Mach effects wouldn’t need fuel.
美国国家航空航天局同样资助了两个想通过连续核聚变建造更快航天器的团队
NASA also funded two teams that want to build faster spacecraft that run on nuclear fusion,
即把两个小原子并成一个大原子
where you combine two smaller atoms into a larger one.
到目前为止 还没有人有能力设计一个
So far, no one has been able to design a fusion reactor
可以实际安装在宇宙飞船上的核聚变反应堆
that could realistically fit on a spacecraft.
我们最终可能使用这些想法中的一种来比以前更快更远地全景拍摄太阳系
We might eventually use one of these ideas to zoom around the solar system faster and
与此同时 美国宇航局想要运送人类去火星
farther than ever before, but in the meantime, NASA wants to send humans to Mars.
一个问题是 火星上的重力
One problem is that the pull of gravity on Mars
要少于你在地球上感受的一半
is less than half of what you’d experience on Earth.
在那停留几年以后 宇航员最后都会出现各种健康问题
And after a couple of years there, astronauts would end up with all sorts of issues, like
肌无力和心脏问题
weak muscles and heart problems.
因此这组研究人员想要发明一种升降机—蹦床一体机
So this group of researchers wants to invent a sort of elevator-trampoline hybrid that
可以让宇航员瞬间感受到更强的重力
would let astronauts experience stronger gravity in short bursts,
这使他们有希望保持健康
which would hopefully keep them healthy.
另一种 聚焦火星的概念 将会使用基因工程 设计微生物
Another Mars-focused concept would use genetic engineering to design microbes that would
让宇航员利用火星土壤种植农作物 有点像他们在
let astronauts use Martian soil to grow crops. Kind of like what they did
《火星救援》里记载的 但有希望发生更少的爆炸
in the book The Martian, but hopefully with fewer explosions.
火星土壤中的高氯酸盐会使作物难以生长
The microbes would remove perchlorates, a kind of salt in Martian soil that makes it
微生物会转移这种盐 并提供氨帮助植物得到它们需要的氮
hard to grow stuff, and produce ammonia to help plants get the nitrogen they need.
第三组研究人员想要发明一种全新的火星探测方式:飞艇!
A third research team wants to invent a whole new kind of Mars probe: airships!
这些飞艇会像氢气球在地球上飘浮一样四处飘动 但并没有被装满氦气
These ships would float a lot like balloons do on Earth, but instead of being filled with
而是让其内部处于真空状态 拥有一种极低的密度
helium, the insides of the airships would be a vacuum, with a /very/ low density.
这个想法地球上不能实现 因为我们的大气压强会使
The concept wouldn’t work on Earth, because the pressure from our atmosphere would make
一个完全真空的飞艇爆炸
a vacuumed-out airship collapse.
但火星的空气很少 气压不会使其爆炸
But Mars has so little atmosphere that the pressure isn’t strong enough to do that.
或许这些飞艇能做的不仅仅是四处飘浮
And these airships could maybe do a lot more than just float around.
它们还将能够落地收集数据甚至运输其他探测器
They’d be able to touch down on the surface to collect data, or even transport other probes.
现在 很多新任务概念在考虑用其他方式探索太阳系
Now, lots of the mission concepts would explore the solar system in other ways,
比如 发射探针到火星的火卫一
like one that would send a probe to Mars’s moon Phobos.
这个探针将被链在一个停泊的航母上 离表面大约3公里远
This probe would be tethered to a mothership parked about 3 kilometers above the surface,
有点像悬挂在那进行它的测量
and just kind of dangle there as it did all of its measuring.
在如此低的重力下可能要比尝试实际着陆简单:
Which might be easier than trying to actually land on a world with such low gravity:
大约是你在地球上体验到的1700分之一
about one 1700th of what you would experience on Earth.
另一个探针将会一路发射到冥王星!
Another probe would go all the way to Pluto!
研究人员想要设计一个着陆器 利用冥王星厚重的大气层
The researchers want to design a lander that would take advantage of Pluto’s thick atmosphere
帮助它缓慢下降 着陆 且不需要太多燃料
to help it slow down and land without needing much fuel.
第三个想法是发射一个航天器
A third concept would launch a spacecraft to study
研究正常物质与暗能量的相互作用方式
the way that normal matter interacts with dark energy,
这个被科学家认为是造成宇宙加速扩张的原因
which is what scientists think is responsible for the acceleration of the expansion of the universe.
暗能量几乎占据了宇宙的73%
Dark energy seems to make up 73% of the universe,
但我们仍未真正了解它
but we still don’t really know anything about it.
也有一组研究人员想要开发可以反射
There’s also a team that wants to develop a super reflective material that could reflect
足够热量的超反射物质 使探针安全处于太阳表面70万公里以内
enough heat to keep a probe safe within 700,000 kilometers of the sun’s surface.
比我们曾到过的距离近了八倍
That’s about 8 times closer than we have ever been.
另一个团队想要向太阳系发射一个望远镜
And yet another group wants to send a telescope outside the solar system,
它可以利用太阳的重力弯曲光线
where it could take advantage of the fact that the sun’s gravity bends light,
并且使用这个弯曲得到比我们从地球得到的 更清晰的外行星图片
and use that bending to get a much clearer picture of exoplanets than we can get from Earth.
最后 这还有三个任务将帮助我们开发小行星
Finally, there are three missions that would help us mine asteroids,
这是最近越来越流行的概念
an idea that’s been getting really popular lately.
一种将发射三个小航天器到环太阳轨道
One would send three small spacecraft into orbit around the sun,
它们将在轨道上寻找采矿目标以及可能威胁到地球的小行星
where they would look for mining targets and asteroids that could be a threat to Earth.
另一组想要开发一种方式 使用开采自小行星的物质
Another team wants to develop a way to use the stuff mined from asteroids to create
创造高温盾 护送已开采材料穿过地球大气层
heat shields that would protect deliveries of mined material as they fall through Earth’s atmosphere.
那样子 它们实际上不需要运输高温盾
That way, they don’t actually have to ship up the heat shields.
最后 还有为探索小行星而设计的饼状太空机器人
Finally, there are the pancake space bots, which would be designed to explore small asteroids,
宽阔而平坦的表面让它们有良好的抓地力
with a wide, flat surface to let them get a good grip.
它们也可以使自己停留在一个地点
They would also be able to anchor themselves in one spot,
从小行星上开采物质 然后把它送到轨道外的收集器上
to mine material from the asteroid and then toss it up to a collector out in orbit.
我们从未发射过任何一种探针 徘徊在一个小行星上
We’ve never sent any kind of probe to wander around on an asteroid,
我们也从未开采过一个小行星
and we’ve definitely never mined one.
但如果这个想法可行 终有一天 我们可以在那拥有整个采矿机器人舰队
But if this idea works, we could have whole fleets of mining bots out there someday.
那么 就到这了 15个新的任务概念
So there you have it. 15 new mission concepts.
就我个人而言 我支持火星种植微生物和饼状开矿机器人
Personally, I’m rooting for the Mars farming microbes and the pancake asteroid bots,
这些任务中 你对哪个最感兴趣呢?
but which of these missions are you most excited about?
来评论区留言告诉我们吧
Let us know in the comments.
感谢观看这段《科技空间》的趣味视频
And thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space.
如果你想要帮助我们制作更多这样的视频 你可以查看patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help us make more videos like this, you can check out patreon.com/scishow.

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视频概述

介绍美国宇航局投资的15个新的太空计划,主要包含推进、探索火星、探索太阳系其他部分以及小行星采矿等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

茶小树

审核员

审核团C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1vQz0Pedfs

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