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有关哥特艺术与建筑的13个小知识

13 Facts about Gothic Art and Architecture | ARTiculations

艺术迷们 你们好
Hello art nerds
你们是否想过哥特式是什么?
have you ever wondered about what Gothic art is?
我们现在来告诉你
We’re here to talk you.
首先让我们明确我们在这里不会讨论什么
Let us first be clear what we’re not talkingabout here.
它不是这个
It’s not this,
或者这个 还有这个
or this, or this.
先对哥特摇滚迷和喜欢浓眼线的人说声抱歉
Sorry Goth Rock fans and people who like heavyeyeliner.
哥特式建筑首先在法国开始崭露头角
Gothic architecture first came into prominence in France
大约在十二世纪早期到中期
around the early to mid 12th century
其中的典例代表是大型教堂
and it’s mostly exemplified through large cathedrals.
它的主要特点包括彩绘玻璃窗
It features things such as stained glass windows,
尖型拱门 拱式扶垛
pointed arches, flying buttresses,
精心设计的棱拱以及
elaborate ribbed-vaulting as well as
非对称的设计和立面
asymmetrical designs and facades.
哥特式建筑是由中世纪的罗马建筑
Gothic architecture evolved from Romanesquearchitecture
演变而来
that was carried through the medieval ages.
罗马建筑的最大特点在圆拱门 小圆镶嵌窗
Romanesque architecture mostlyfeatured rounded arches, small rounded mosaic windows,
还有厚重的砌体 厚重的天花板以及墙面
heavy masonry, heavy ceilings aswell as walls.
在多数情况下 他们都有
And for the most part it had
比例对称的平面和立面
proportional symmetrical plans and facades.
大家通常会有一个错觉
There is a common misconception that
在中世纪时期和哥特式时期
during the medieval ages and during the gothic period
人们只建造教堂和大教堂
people only built churches and cathedrals,
这明显是错误的
which is obviously not true
因为他们需要地方用来居住
because they had to live some where.
人们也会建住宅还有风格相似的商业区
People also built housesand commercial spaces in similar styles,
只是那些建筑不像大教堂一样持久耐用
it’s just that those weren’t built as durable as cathedrals,
并且那些一般性建筑经常需要重建
and those general got rebuilt more often.
然而对于教堂或大教堂来说
Whereas when it comes to a church or cathedral
它们通常被维护地很好
they’re general maintained very well.
各种各样的建筑特点像拱式扶垛
Various architectural features like flying buttresses,
尖型拱门以及肋拱式天花板
pointed arches and ribbed-vaulted ceilings
都使得建筑物可以造得很高的同时
allowed building to be built much taller
又允许墙壁很薄
with thinner walls as well as allowed
并且还可以安装大型彩绘玻璃窗
large stained glass windows to be installed.
现在你会问 为什么他们想要建造那么高并且
Now why did they want to build super tall cathedrals
带有大玻璃窗的大教堂呢?
with huge windows you ask?
主要因为法国的许多城市比如沙特尔市
This mostly due to the fact that various French cities like Chartres,
兰斯市和亚眠市
Reims and Amiens were
都在竞争建造当时世界上最大的教堂
competing to have the largest cathedral in the world at the time.
显然 你建造地越高
So apparently the taller your building is,
你越接近天堂
the higher you reach the heavens and
因此你是最崇拜上帝
therefore you worship God the most.
“Gothic”一词起源于“Goths”一词
The term Gothic originates from the term”Goths.”
罗马人在中世纪时期曾用它来
which were what the Romans used to describe
描述日耳曼部落
Germanic tribes in the medieval period.
它最基本的意思是卑鄙野蛮的
It basically means “barbaric”
也是当时罗马人对日耳曼人的看法
which is how the Romans felt about Germanic tribes at the time
或者任何非罗马人
or anyone who’s not Roman for that matter.
“哥特式建筑”一词最早是由意大利学者
The term “Gothic Architecture” was first used actually
在十六世纪提出的
in the 16th century by Italian scholars
并且他们确实在十二世纪用这个词
and they actually used this term to describe architecture
来贬低性地描述建筑
in the twelfth century in a derogatory way
因为那时的人们对这种造型尖锐 复杂繁琐
because at the time they weren’t very interested
的设计不是特别感兴趣
in this type of pointy, elaborately designed architecture,
他们觉得这种设计有点杂乱而粗俗
and they felt that it was kind of messy and barbaric.
最高的哥特式大教堂
The tallest completed gothic cathedral
是在哥特早期建成的亚眠大教堂
from the early Gothic period is the Amiens cathedral
它大概位于法国巴黎以北120公里或75英里处
in France it’s about 120km or 75 miles northof Paris.
建于1220年至1270年间
It was built from 1220 to 1270.
它的内部高度达到42.3米或128英尺(这里说错了 其实是138.8英尺)
It reaches an internal height of 42.3 metersor 128 feet (this is wrong it’s 138.8 ft).
现在哥特式艺术主要表现在雕塑和绘画方面
Now Gothic art, specifically sculpture and painting,
它指的是欧洲一个较长时期内的艺术风格
it refers to a broader period of artistic styles in Europe,
大约在12至14世纪这一时期
at around the same time, roughly 12-14 centuries,
主要包含世俗和宗教等题材
that includes secular as well as religious works.
它们大多似乎以更流畅自然的表达
They mostly seem to show scenes and figures
以及更复杂的叙述来展示场景和人物
in more fluid, naturalistic,narrative and complex forms.
与之前时期的
As opposed to prior periods of
相对简单和呆板的创作不同
relatively more simplistic and rigid compositions.
许多哥特式艺术作品 如绘画和插图都会出现在
Many Gothic art works such as paintings and illustrations appear in
大型哥特式大教堂的祭坛装饰或彩图抄本中
altarpieces or illuminated manuscripts in these large Gothic cathedrals.
当哥特艺术逐渐发展到文艺复兴时期时
Now Gothic art gradually evolved into the renaissance period
几乎没有什么明显的变化
with little to no distinct transition.
不过风格逐渐变得立体并且意寓变得深刻
Styles progressively became morethree-dimensional and more depth driven.
虽然透视绘画的科学实践
Although the precise scientific practice of perspective painting
直到大约16世纪中期 也就是文艺复兴中期
wouldn’t be perfected in Europe until around the middle of the 16th century
才在欧洲得到完善
in the middle of the renaissance.
在随后的18世纪以及19世纪
Now the UK and its various colonial counterparts
英国及其各种殖民地
experienced a very prominent period of Gothic revival
经历了一段哥特风盛行的时期
later in around the 18th and 19th centuries.
尤其是在浪漫主义兴起之后
Especially after the rise of Romanticism
人们兴起了对中世纪的装饰艺术及建筑
where people gained a new appreciation and longing for
新的欣赏与向往
medieval decorative arts and architecture.
也因此建造了很多知名的建筑物 比如威斯敏斯特宫
And thus many well known buildings such as the Palace at Westminster,
伦敦大桥 还有位于安大略省渥太华市的加拿大国会大厦
the London Bridge as well as the Parliament buildings in Canada in Ottawa, Ontario
这些建筑都极具哥特复兴的风格
were built with very distinctive Gothic revival styles.
感谢您的观看
Thanks for watching.
如果你有任何有关哥特艺术和哥特建筑的有趣事实
And please let us know if you have any cool and interesting facts
请告诉我们
about Gothic art and architecture.
如果对于我们节目的后续内容有什么建议
And pleaseleave us a comment if you have any suggestions
也请给我们评论留言
on what we could do in a future episode.
还有不要忘记订阅哦
And don’t forget to subscribe.

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视频概述

本视频从哥特的起源、特点和历史发展等多个角度,揭露了很多不为人知的关于哥特艺术与哥特建筑的小知识。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

momo

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ElPsoR09nU

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