未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

11种改善拖延的方法 | Tim Ferriss,Dan Ariely & more

11 ways to stop procrastinating—for good | Tim Ferriss, Dan Ariely & more | Big Think

11种彻底战胜拖延的方法
Tim Ferriss: Alright. Procrastination. Let’s talk about it.
好 现在咱们来谈谈拖延症
It’s a big topic.
这是一个非常大的话题
And by the way we all face it.
其实我们都会面对拖延问题
It is an ever-present, evergreen issue for a reason
拖延症长期存在是有原因的
and even the people you see on magazine covers,
即使杂志封面上的成功人士
most of them – there are a few mutants,
他们中的大多数——除了一些个例
but they all have things they put off
也都会受拖延症之苦
and there are a few different tactics, approaches
今天我会介绍几种不同的策略和方法
that I found very helpful that I borrowed
这些方法是我从其他人身上学到的
from whether it’s guests on the Tim Ferriss Show
包括我的节目 Tim Ferriss Show 的嘉宾
or people I interviewed for “Tools of Titans”, my newest book.
还有我的新书《泰坦的工具》的访谈对象
Here we go, so down the list.
那么我们马上开始今天的内容
DAN ARIELY: So the first I think mistake
我认为我们常犯的第一个错误
is that we pursue momentary happiness
就是我们追求短期的快乐
rather than longer term happiness.
而非长期快乐
We do the things that will make us laugh out loud today
我们会去做能让我们当下哈哈大笑的事情
kind of, not always laugh out loud
不仅仅指开怀大笑
but kind of like that.
但能马上获取快乐
And we don’t do the things that are difficult and complex and challenging
我们会避开繁杂有挑战性的工作
but give us a very different sense of happiness.
尽管它能带给我们另一种完全不同的快乐
Think about something like running a marathon.
以跑马拉松为例
You don’t see anybody happy.
你不会看到跑马拉松的人面带微笑
If you came as an alien
如果你是某种拥有超能力的外星人
and you imaged people’s brains
你扫描那些正在跑马拉松的人的大脑
and you looked at their facial expressions as they’re running a marathon
并且仔细观察他们的面部表情
you would say somebody’s punishing them.
你会觉得肯定有人在逼迫他们跑步
They are paying for something terrible they’ve done
他们正在因自己做过的错事接受罚
and this is how you know they’re paying their debt to society.
跑马拉松是他们赎罪的方式
And yes
难以否认
It is kind of miserable,
跑马拉松的过程确实是煎熬的
but it’s also meaningful
但同时也是富有意义的
and creates a sense of achievement and so on.
它能给我们带来一种成就感
So we’re pursuing momentary pleasure
很多时候我们都只是在追求短时的快乐
rather than truly understanding the depth
而不懂得继续往下思考
of what happiness is or what meaning is.
去理解快乐的真正含义
FERRISS: Prolific music producers like Rick Rubin who’s legendary
传奇音乐制作人Rick Rubin以高产而出名
and it all comes down to tiny homework assignments.
这一切都归功于小小的家庭作业
So Rick, if he has a stuck artist for instance
比如当Rick向拖稿作曲家要曲子时
he will say can you get me one word or one line
他会说:我希望你明天之前给我一句歌词 哪怕一个词
that you might like for this song that you’re working on by tomorrow.
只要你觉得它能放进这首歌里
Is that possible?
这样你看可以吗?
Mini, mini homework assignments.
就是这样 最不起眼的要求
So with a creative project in the beginning that’s one.
就能帮助你开启一份创造性任务
It’s related to a piece of advice that I got from Neil Strauss
之前我从Neil Strauss得到的建议是降低自己的标准
and that is lower your standards.
在这里和这一点相契合了
So he doesn’t believe in writer’s block.
所以他说他不相信作家有瓶颈期
He says your standards are just too high.
只是他们自己设的标准过高了
You’re creating performance anxiety for yourself.
这样做只会给自己徒增焦虑
So the advice that I got from another writer which matches with that
我同时还从另一个作家处得到了相似的建议
is two crappy pages per day.
也就是每天只写两页稿
So a lot of people are like I’m going to kill it.
但是很多人对这样的小目标非常不屑一顾
I need an ambitious goal.
他们觉得自己可以设一个更高的目标
Let me do 1,500 words, 2,000 words per day for this book I’m working on.
“我这本书每天明明可以写一千五 甚至两千字”
Well, there’s a very high probability
但是事实上
that you’re going to fall short of that
你很可能难以完成这些雄心壮志
and then you will get demoralized.
然后你就会感到灰心丧气
Then you’ll get intimidated by the task
那么自然而然地你会被难以完成的目标吓到
and then you will start procrastinating.
然后拖延也就开始了
So make the hurdle.
所以把你需要跨过的起始点
Make the success threshold really, really low.
把成功的阈值大大降低
That’s what I’ve done for my last three books
我最新出版的三本书就是这么来的
is two crappy pages per day.
每天就写两页稿
That’s all I need.
这就足够了
If I don’t end up using them that’s fine.
就算最后我没能用上这两页草稿
I just need to get out two crappy pages.
我所要做的也只是把他们从我的书中移除
If you’re going to exercise and you’re making a New Year’s resolution,
如果你想把健身加到你下一年的计划中
don’t make it an hour a day, four times a week.
想着要坚持一周四次 每天锻炼一小时
No, no, no, no, no.
千万不要这么做
Five to ten minutes at the gym
每周去三次健身房
three times a week, plenty.
每次五到十分钟就足够了
And in all those cases you will feel successful
并且在这种情况下你会感到巨大的成就感
because you’ve checked your box for success.
因为你可以看见自己已经完成了设立的目标
And then very often you’ll exceed that for extra credit.
并且很多时候你还会做额外的任务来赢得更多的成就感
You’ll be well, I’m already at the gym.
因为你会想 反正我都在健身房了
I’ll go for an extra ten minutes.
再多做十分钟锻炼也无妨
Well, I’m already flossing my teeth.
反正我热身也做了
We’ll do an extra four.
再来两组训练也没关系
Well, I’ve already hit my two pages
虽然我写完了预计的两篇稿子
but I’m feeling great and I’m in the flow.
但我感觉文思泉涌
Maybe I’ll do ten. Maybe I’ll do 20.
那我就再写十页甚至二十页
But it prevents you from feeling like a failure.
最重要的是 设置最小目标能避免让你感到挫败
This is very, very important.
这一点非常非常重要
That is what derails a lot of people.
因为正是挫败感将很多人引到了拖延的道路上
JILLIAN MICHAELS: First we have to appreciate that there’s a very big difference between
首先我们要知道动力和动机
inspiration and motivation.
是两个完全不一样的概念
And inspiration is great.
动力确实是积极的
Inspiration is a source of, a catalyst if you will
可以说动力就像是一种外在的催化剂
of change that comes from outside of you.
促使你去改变自己
So it could be an episode of Big Think that you watched.
比如某一期你看过的《大想法》节目
It could be a song you heard, a book you read,
也可以是你听过的一首歌 你读过的一本书
a memoir that you saw on who knows, some episode of television.
甚至是你看过的某一集电视剧的回忆录
And you say you know what?
受到这些外部刺激后 你肯定会斗志满满
I’m inspired.
你也许会对自己说
If they can do it, I can do it
既然他们都能做到 为什么我不可以?
and it gives you the little jumpstart on the engine right?
这样的刺激会像发动引擎一样促使你行动
The car gets going
你开始向前行动
and then in a month, maybe two,
但是一个月 或者两个月后
all of a sudden you kind of peter out
好像电池耗尽一样
and the battery dies again.
这样的动力渐渐就消失了
And that’s because you need motivation
这是因为如果你想要保持如此高涨的热情
to stay in motion.
就必须有内在的动力源泉
And motivation is that why that comes from inside of you.
而动机就能激发这样源源不断的动力
FERRISS: So you could use technique, for instance, like the Pomodoro Technique
其实你也可以用一些像计时器一类的小装置来帮助你
and people have interpreted this in different ways,
每个人具体使用它的方法也不同
but it effectively means sprints of say 20 to 25.
但是计时器可以有效地记录你专注的时间
Some people do 23 minutes
一般是20到25分钟 有的人会计23分钟
where you are like all right, I know I’m not going to get this done,
这段时间内你可以对自己说:虽然我不一定能完成所有工作
but I’m going to sprint for 20 minutes, 25 minutes
但在这二十 二十五分钟内我会尽全力去做
and then take a five minute break.
然后可以休息五分钟
Once you have these positive constraints
这样积极的自制想法是非常关键的
which, by the way,
值得一提的是
for a creative person very important to have positive constraints.
这样的自制想法对于那些从事创造工作的人也同样重要
Being able to do anything you want all the time
能够随时随地去做自己想做的事情
is a recipe for disaster and paralysis
就是治疗疾病 瘫痪
and procrastination.
包括拖延症的良方
BARBARA OAKLEY: So I teach a course, Learning How To Learn,
我现在正在教授一门世界范围内规模最大的网课
that’s actually the world’s largest massive open online course.
叫做学会如何学习
We have something like two million people.
这门课大概有两百万学生
And the Pomodoro Technique is the most popular technique.
从我听到的上万人的反馈中
I hear from literally thousands of people
这样的计时器技巧也是最受欢迎的
and it’s so simple.
并且它操作起来非常简单
All you have to do is turn off all distractions
你需要做的就是屏蔽所有的能让你分心的源头
so no little ringy dingies on your cell phoneor anything like that.
比如你手机上响来响去的各种应用消息
On your computer you want to turn off any kind of messages that might arise,
包括你电脑上随时可能弹出的各种消息
set a timer for 25 minutes
设置一个二十五分钟的倒计时
and then just focus as intently as you can for those 25 minutes.
然后在这二十五分钟内尽可能地专注
And this is a key thing when you’re done.
但是当你完成专注环节后 有一步至关重要
You reward yourself,
你要奖励自己
and you reward yourself by relaxing a little bit
你可以放松一会儿
and doing something completely different.
做一点不一样的事
CHARLES DUHIGG: You can’t find some work reward
你是很难找到一种能够完全替代拖延的
that’s going to take the place of procrastination.
让自己感到满足的方式的
If the reward of procrastination
如果拖延能够给你带来的好处
is that you get to spend five minutes distracted by Facebook
是你能够去刷五分钟脸书
and sort of see these updates of your friends.
去看看你朋友们又发了什么有趣的东西
You have to allow yourself to do that.
你必须允许自己这样做
That has to be part of your workday.
你也必须让这一部分的放松成为你工作日的日常
If you need five minutes every hour
如果你每专注一小时都需要五分钟
to look at tweets or to just surf the internet,
去看看推特 上上网
you need to schedule that into your schedule,
你就必须接受这个习惯
allow yourself to do that.
并且将其规划进你的日程
Because when people start to procrastinating
因为一旦人们开始拖延
what they’ve done is they’ve tried to ignore that urge.
他们就会无视各种催动力
They’ve tried to deny themselves
他们尝试通过上网 刷脸书
time on Facebook or time surfing the web.
来逃避自我
And then all of a sudden it erupts
但总有一刻 现实会崩塌
and they go and they say I’m just going to check for five minutes
他们不断地用“五分钟休息”来掩饰现实
and 45 minutes later they’ve lost all of this time.
但最终往往会难以控制自己浪费掉四十五分钟
It’s because they haven’t accommodated that need.
这归根究底都是因为他们没有正视自己的需求
Once a habit exists
一旦习惯养成
you can’t just quelch it.
你是很难将其彻底根除的
You can’t pretend it’s not there.
你不能假装这个习惯不存在
You have to sort of accommodate this need in your life.
你只能将其融入你的生活
And so the answer is
所以你可以这样解决这个问题
to give yourself five minutes every hour.
每专注一小时就给自己五分钟时间放松
In fact you can set an alarm.
你甚至可以设一个闹钟来提醒自己
At the end of every hour give yourself five minutes to surf the web.
在这五分钟内你可以上网
Because if you allow yourself five minutes every hour
有了你允许自己放松的这五分钟
it won’t explode into 45 minutes
才不会有你艰难克制失败后
because you’ve been trying to suppress it.
难以自控地四十五分钟放纵
ARIELY: The literature there’s a term for this.
在文学领域有一个专门的名词
It’s called structured procrastination
叫做结构化拖延
where you basically do lots of little things
说的也就是当你做了很多无关紧要的小事
that give you the sense that you’re making progress
感到慢慢成就感的时候
without actually making any progress.
其实你根本没有取得任何实质性的进步
It’s very easy to get ourselves to do lots of little tasks
让我们投入到解决很多简单小任务的过程其实是非常简单的
that gives us momentary slightly joy.
解决这些小事能给我们带来短暂的快乐
Oh, I erased another email.
比如“噢 我刚刚删了一封邮件”
Oh, I responded to that email and so on.
“噢 我回了一封邮件”等等这样无关紧要的小事
Without thinking long term.
但是却最终让我们忽视了更重要的工作
MICHAELS: There should always be a look towards the future.
我们应该把目光放在未来
We are always growing and evolving and progressing.
因为人总是在不断成长 不断进步的
There is no finish line in life ultimately
在我们的生活中是永远没有终点线的
and I think that’s tough for some to accept
但很多人却难以接受这个事实
because we think okay, I crossed the finish line,
他们每次做完一件事就会觉得自己已经到达了终点
now what?
但是然后呢?
You’re not dead.
只要我们生命没有完结
There’s more work to do.
就会有更多的任务等着我们去做
Look at that.
我们也必须接受这样的事实
ARIELY: In long term thinking
只有当我们把目光放的长远一些
it’s really what causes real joy.
才能懂得什么是真正的快乐
And it’s not easy, right.
但是这并不容易做到
It’s not easy.
大部分人都觉得很困难
I get about 300 emails a day.
当我每天都能收到三百封邮件的时
I wake up, I open my laptop.
早上我醒来 睁开眼 打开电脑
It’s always a moment of slight depression.
我总是会感到片刻的低落
Oh, my goodness.
天哪
I have to deal with all of this.
我怎么要处理这么多邮件
And I could spend my whole day doing email.
就单回复他们就得花一整天
And email here’s an analogy.
在这里”邮件”只是一个类比
There’s an analogy for all the things that you have to do
“邮件”可以是任何你必须完成的繁琐工作
but they’re not giving you a true sense of accomplishment.
与此同时完成这些工作又不会给你带来很多成就感
And the real challenge – and it’s not easy is to carve time
这个时候真正的挑战就是从繁琐的工作中腾出时间
to do the things that you would say at the end of three months,
你可以腾出三个月
six months, a year and so on will give me a sense that I’m actually contributing
六个月或者一年来做一件真正对你有益处的
doing something useful.
能够让你学到东西的事
So personally I do this with writing.
对于我来说 我会腾出时间给写作
It’s very easy to spend a whole day responding to email.
因为很多时候你会不自觉地花费一整天来回复邮件
I try to protect some time and say I’m going to write.
但我会从中为写作预留出一点时间
I’m going to actually stop.
我会停止做其他繁复的小事
I’m going to think.
开始认真去思考
It will take me a while.
虽然这个过程往往会先耽搁一段时间
Sometimes I’ll write something I said the whole time was useless.
并且当我真正花费时间去写作的时候又会写不出什么有意义的东西
I didn’t really progress enough
我没有取得明显的进展
but from time to time there is progress
但是渐渐的 我发现进展是存在的
and over time it creates a body of knowledge
并且随着时间流逝你得到的有用的东西越来越多
that you say this is actually a very useful thing.
就像滚雪球一样
FERRISS: The next way that you can apply positive constraint
还有一种你能够积极自制的的方法
is by building in incentives and consequences.
你可以找到自己的动力源并且想象努力之后的成果
All this means is make yourself socially accountable.
这也就意味着你要把自己变得可靠
Having someone else to hold your feet to the fire
你可以让别人来帮忙监督你 让你远离外来诱惑
and keep you accountable for whatever goal you’ve set for yourself.
让你对自己设下的目标负责
That could be a check in via phone.
比如让他们通过手机监督你
It could be a bet so a financial component
还是一种非常有效的方法
which is very effective.
就是和朋友设立一个金钱方面的赌约
And I think in part not because of the money you will win
我觉得可能更多的不是因为你想赢钱
but the money you will lose.
更多的是因为你不想输钱
People work a lot harder to counteract loss aversion it turns out.
事实上人们为了规避损失往往会做出更多努力
ARIELY: The beauty of human nature
人性的美妙之处
is that lots of things motivate us
在于生活中有很多能够激励我们的东西
and sense of accomplishmentand achievement,
比如能获得的成就感
our title, our connection to work.
我们能赢到的头衔 我们对于工作的热忱
Our connection to people at work.
包括我们对于同事的认可
Competing with other people.
还有我们与他人竞争的欲望
All of those things motivate us.
这些都激励着我们不断向前
When we write a motivation equation
当我们能用动力来换取某样成果时
we would write motivation equals yes, money is important
可能我们都会说:钱!钱确实很重要
but so is achievement, sense of progress, competition, dah, dah, dah, dah.
但是我们从中获得的成就感 知识 竞争精神等等等等也都很重要
And the question is how do we use all of them.
那么现在的问题是 我们如何利用这些成果呢
How do we use all of them to create motivation.
我们怎样反向将这些成果转化为我们前进的动力呢?
DUHIGG: Why are some people so much better at maintaining their focus
为什么有的人特别擅长保持注意力集中
and not reacting not getting distracted by all these things.
他们总能保持自己不被外界事物分散注意力
It’s because ahead of time
这是因为早在开始做事情之前
they’ve envisioned what they expect to see.
他们就已经预见了接下来的过程
They’ve envisioned what they expect to occur.
他们会设想接下来会遇到怎样的困难
So on the subway when they’re riding to work
所以在他们乘地铁去工作的路上
they think about what is this day going to be like.
他们就会设想今天一天会是怎样安排的
I know that I’m going to this meeting.
可能他有一个会议
What do I expect to occur at that meeting.
他就会想在这个会议上会发生什么
And so when they walk in
所以当他们走进会议室
and they’re boss asks them some unexpected question
而老板此时问了一些他们从未设想过的问题时
their brain almost subconsciously says
他们的大脑会立马下意识的想
I didn’t expect that question to occur.
“我可没想到你会问这样的问题”
This isn’t matching the picture in my brain of what I anticipated
这与他之前在地铁上设想的完全不一样
so I need to put that question off.
所以他们开始逃避
I need to say can we take that offline
他们会说:不好意思我现在有点事
and I’ll answer that later.
能待会再和你说吗
Or they have a picture in their brain
再或者他们下班前就想好了回家后
of what it’s going to be like to deal with the kids
怎么处理孩子的问题
and to make dinner.
怎么做晚饭
There’s some type of expectation
但是一旦意外情况发生
and so as a result when their pocket buzzes
比如他们的手机突然响了
and an email comes in
他们收到了一封邮件
they can say I can’t handle this right now.
他们会觉得自己现在没法处理这件事
I need to give myself five minutes
他们需要缓五分钟
and I’ll deal with this later.
然后再来处理它
MICHAELS: Remove negative impacts in your environment
你需要移除你周围环境中的消极因素
and that’s one of the things that’s so good about actual things is that
如果你真的改变了现实中的环境因素
if you change them they stay changed.
这样的改变必然是不可逆的
There’s no fighting back.
这其实就是现实事物的好处之一
But do some deep self-reflection
但是同时也要记得经常反省自己
and consider getting into some counseling to look at those things
你也可以尝试去寻求专业人士的建议
and get the tools to turn them around.
借助这样的工具将不好的习惯扭转过来
FERRISS: So those are a few things that you could utilize
对付拖延症有很多可以使用的方法
and I’ll give you one kind of wacky one
在这里我会给你推荐比较疯狂的一种方法
that is from Mike Birbiglia
它是由Mike Birbiglia提出的
who‘s one of the most successful comedians on the planet.
Mike Birbiglia也是世界上最成功的喜剧人之一
When he was procrastinating working on his screenplay,
当他在创作自己最新的剧本时
his latest screenplay,
他发现自己拖延症又犯了
he noticed that when he was accountable to someone else,
但是此时他发现他当他需要对其他人负责时
he had a meeting, he was never late.
他从不拖延
He was always early.
比如当他有一个会议的时候 他从不迟到
But when he had a commitment to himself to write
但是当他只需要对自己负责时 比如他写剧本的时候
he might put it off for hours.
他可能就会把正事推后数小时
So he took a post it and he put it next to his bed – and this sounds ludicrous,
所以他贴了一张便利贴在自己床头——虽然听起来有点夸张
but it said Mike
但是上面写着:Mike
– and I think it was three exclamation points.
可能后面还有三个巨大的感叹号
You have a meeting with yourself at 7:00 a.m. at Café
今天早上七点你和你自己在咖啡店有一个会议
whatever it was or where you tended to work.
当然他想要做的工作的内容和地点都可以改变
And that actually for whatever weird quirk of human psychology
但重点是这真的有用
got him to stay on track
不管是出于什么奇怪的心理作用
for his meeting with himself
通过这样的方式他能够让自己更加专注
to write his screenplay.
从而完成自己的剧本创作
So that’s another Jedi mind trick that you might try on yourself.
所以你也可以在自己身上试一试这样的小诀窍
There are many tools in the toolkit
其实你能使用的方法很多
but keep it small, keep it defined,
但是你只用选几种最有用的 好好利用他们
rig it so you can win
就可以达到你的目标
and when in doubt figure out a way to create a loss or shame
但是当你真的没有办法完成你的工作
if you don’t actually tackle your task
甚至无法达成某些可量化的小目标时
and achieve some type of measurable goal
你就要想办法从中制造一种失落感以及羞愧感
by a specific point in time.
以此继续刺激你前进

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

拖延症是现代社会中很多人的痛苦之源。在这个视频中,跟随一些名人成功克服拖延症的经验,也许他们能给出也许也同样深受拖延症之苦的你一些有用的建议

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

mrmilkbox

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbxTkvfIOIg

相关推荐