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压制癌症的法宝——T细胞疗法

10-Year Cancer Remission Thanks to T Cell Therapy​​ | SciShow News

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode of SciShow.
感谢Brilliant对本期科学秀的大力支持
Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow
访问Brilliant网站
to learn how you can take your STEM skills to the next level!
学习如何让你的STEM本领更上一层楼
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Our immune system generally does a good job at keeping us alive
通常 我们的免疫系统都能很好地抵御
by fighting off foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses.
细菌和病毒等外来入侵者 以保护我们的生命安全
But sometimes, it’s your own body that is an invader in the form of cancer cells,
但有些时候 入侵者是我们自己身体内形成的
which are experts at evading the immune system.
精于躲避免疫系统追踪的癌细胞
According to a study published this week in the journal Nature, there may be a way
本周发表的期刊《自然》提到
to “train” the immune system outside the body to keep leukemia patients
也许存在一种可以体外“训练”免疫系统的方法
in remission for up to a decade.
可使白血病患者的病情缓解长达十年之久
One of the many kinds of cells that make up our immune system are T cells.
T细胞是构成我们免疫系统众多种细胞之一
Each T cell specializes in identifying and or attacking just one kind of invader.
每种T细胞只专门识别或攻击一种入侵者
To do their job efficiently, T cells are covered in special proteins, called receptors,
为了高效完成它们的使命 T细胞表面覆盖着叫做受体的特殊蛋白
designed to match up with antigens,
用于匹配 覆盖在细菌和病毒这类
proteins at the surface of invaders like bacteria and viruses.
入侵者表面的抗原和蛋白
So, a T cells receptors are kind of like chemical keys on the hunt for their lock.
可以说 T细胞的受体 像是一种搜寻着对应的锁的化学钥匙
But some diseases, like cancer, are expert at dodging T cells’ keys.
然而像癌症等疾病 非常擅长躲避T细胞的钥匙
One way they can do this is by not having enough detectable antigens
减少细胞表面覆盖的可检测抗原
dotting their cellular surfaces.
就是它们的技俩之一
The good news is that scientists have figured out a way
万幸 科学家已经研究出一种方法
to take some T cells out of a patient’s body
可以从患者体内提取一些T细胞
and train them to better recognize cancer cell antigens,
并训练它们更好地识别癌细胞抗原
and then put them back into the patient to fight the cancer.
然后将其放回患者体内以对抗癌症
It’s called chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR T cell therapy.
人们称之为嵌合抗原受体疗法或CAR T细胞疗法
The T cell training regimen is actually a form of genetic engineering.
这种培养T细胞的方法 实际上是基因工程的一种形式
Through a rather long and complicated process, a snippet of DNA is eventually
经过一个相当漫长且复杂的过程后
added to the T cell’s genetic code, giving them instructions
向T细胞的基因代码中输入DNA片段
to make a tailored receptor for the cancer cell antigen.
促使它为癌细胞量身定制一个受体
So when the new tailored receptor latches onto its target,
当新定制的受体锁定靶标
the T cell calls for backup by releasing a flood of molecules called cytokines.
T细胞会释放大量名为细胞因子的分子物 以请求支援
Together, the cytokine molecules and the army of T cells
细胞因子和T细胞大军
cause inflammation that, ideally, kills their target.
共同引发了 理想情况下能解决它们靶标的炎症
While CAR T cell therapy has been approved in a few types of cancer,
虽然CAR T细胞疗法已批准应用于少数类型的癌症
there hasn’t been a lot of research looking at long-term effects.
但依然缺乏关于其长期疗效的调研
Like, how long will a single infusion of T cells last in the body
比如 单次注入的T细胞可以在体内存续
and keep the patient in remission?
并保持病情缓解状态的时间是多久?
So back in 2010, two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
早在2010年 有两位慢性淋巴细胞白血病患者
received a single dose of CAR T cells.
接受了单次剂量CAR T细胞注入
Within the year, it worked so well they both entered remission.
治疗效果如此超群以至于两人均在一年内进入缓解期
And here’s the kicker, they’ve stayed that way, without any additional treatment.
更重要的是 他们在未经其他治疗情况下始终保持该状态
The latest bloodwork was collected a couple of years back.
最新的血样采集于几年前
And the team found both patients still had
研究组在两人的血液中
some of the CAR T cells in their bloodstreams.
仍然均可检测到CAR T细胞
Just trucking along after all that time.
虽然一直以来的努力结果很不错
While these are some great results,
但并不代表这种疗法
it doesn’t mean that every leukemia patient is going to hop onto this therapy.
适用于每位白血病患者
When the study first happened, there was a cohort of 14,
首次调研的实验组有14人
but only two of those patients were included in this ten-year follow-up.
最终仅实现对两人的长达十年的跟进调查
Also, this treatment is known for having some pretty nasty side effects,
此外 众所周知 这种疗法有一些相当恶劣的副作用
like trouble breathing and even seizures.
像呼吸困难甚至癫痫发作
Still, further studies may improve CAR T-cell side effects
不过进一步的研究有希望改善CAR T细胞的副作用
making it a great option to keep cancer at bay.
使其成为抑制癌症的一线可选方案
Speaking of body hacks,
说到关于身体的黑科技
Last week in the Journal Science Advances, a study announced it’s possible
一项研究在上周的《科学的进步》中宣布
to help African Clawed Frogs regrow the upper part of their amputated leg.
可以使非洲爪蛙断肢的上半部分重新生长
We humans may be able to stitch cuts back together,
在人类 伤口可以进行缝合
or even regrow a decent chunk of our liver.
甚至肝脏可以大面积再生
But in general, we aren’t known for having regeneration superpowers.
但总体来说 我们还不能算是拥有再生的超能力
We’re not like lizards or crabs,
毕竟我们不像蜥蜴或螃蟹那样
which can regrow way more complex body parts, like entire limbs.
连整条四肢那样复杂的部位都可以再生
The way it works in these critters is that
在这些生物中有效的再生方法
their brain recognizes they’ve lost a chunk of their body,
其运作模式是 大脑检测到身体缺失大面积组织
and unspecialized cells, called stem cells,
名为干细胞的非特异性细胞
suddenly flow to the stump and start getting jobs.
会急速涌向残肢并开始工作
So they go from unspecialized cells to bone cells, muscle cells,
随后这些非特异性细胞会转化为
nerve cells, and so on.
骨细胞 肌细胞 神经细胞等等
Their body already went through the process of making that limb once,
它们的身体已经经历过一次制造该肢体的过程
so the instructions are still there to make another one.
所以指令仍然奏效 再造一条也轻车熟路
And humans have stem cells, too.
人类当然也有干细胞
But when we lose a limb, instead of sending STEM cells,
但当我们缺失一条四肢时 身体会命令
our body sends instructions to cover it over with scar tissue ASAP,
疤痕组织尽速将其覆盖 以避免出血和感染
so we don’t bleed out or catch an infection.
而不是输送干细胞到患处
The team of scientists wanted to know
科学家团队想弄清楚
if they could find a way to trigger limb growth in humans,
是否存在触发人类肢体生长的方法
so they turned to 115 female African clawed frogs.
于是转而使用115只雌性非洲爪蛙
As adults, that species lacks regenerative abilities.
成年的该物种缺乏再生能力
If they lose a limb, it’s gone for good.
如果它们失去一条肢体 那就永远失去了
To test their hypothesis, scientists cut off part of one back leg.
科学家割取了蛙后腿的一部分 以求证他们的假设
The frogs were either left to heal on their own as a control group,
这些青蛙要么作为对照组成员 任其自行愈合
or got their wound covered with a small silicone cap
要么在它们的伤口上覆盖一个小硅胶帽
filled with silk proteins and a 5-drug cocktail.
胶帽里面填满纤维蛋白和5种药物混合剂
Each of the drugs had its own job to do, prevent inflammation
每一种药物都有它的作用 比如
and the formation of scar tissue, and stimulate regular tissue growth.
防止炎症和疤痕组织形成 刺激正常组织生长
During a previous study, the team had just used one drug,
上一次研究中 他们仅使用了一种药物
which did grow something back, but it was more of a spike than a leg,
结果确实再生了一个小尖而不像是腿
so it looked like a fleshy growth with the first stage of bone regrowth showing.
看起来像某种带有最初阶段骨组织的肉芽
In this new study, the caps, called BioDomes, were kept on for 24 hours,
在这项新研究中 名为BioDomes的保护帽可保持24小时
and then the team observed what ended up growing over the next year and a half.
然后 研究团队观察了 历经一年半的时间 最终生长出了什么结构
Just a few days in, the team observed that, for the frogs that got the drugs,
仅数日后研究组就观察到
the molecular instructions their bodies had used as embryos had reactivated.
用药蛙的胚胎期分子指令已重新激活
And over those 18 months, they ended up regrowing a kind of leg.
经历了这18个月 它们再生出了类似腿的结构
While none of them would be mistaken for a copy of the frog’s other leg,
虽然不能说与它另一条腿一模一样
two-thirds of the frogs given the drugs
三分之二给予药物治疗的青蛙
had regrown way more complex tissues and leg shape.
确实再生出了更复杂的组织和腿形
They even managed to regrow what researchers are calling toes, but no toe bones.
它们甚至再生了研究员所说的脚趾 只是没有趾骨
The legs could also respond to touch, and the frogs could use them for swimming.
这些腿有触觉反馈 且可以帮助蛙游泳
And all that with just a day of treatment!
而这一切仅需一天的治疗!
Of course, this research is on amphibians.
当然 这只是针对两栖动物的研究
Human trials are a long way away.
人类实验还任重道远
A lot more work is needed to figure out what the perfect drug cocktail
为了找出完美的药物组合 再生出
needs to be to regrow the best limb possible.
最完整的肢体 还有许多努力要做
So maybe decades in the future,
也许几十年后
people could choose if they want to regrow a missing arm
人们可以选择再生一条缺失的手臂
or have the benefits of a robotic one instead.
或者获得机械臂的优势作为代替
But while we wait for those superpowers to arrive,
而在等待这些超能力来临的时间里
you can hone your brains’ power, problem-solving, with today’s sponsor, Brilliant.
可以和我们的赞助商Brilliant一起磨炼大脑 解决疑问
They’re an online learning platform with courses about science,
这是一个涵盖科学 工程学
engineering, computer science, and math.
计算机科学和数学课程的学习平台
And they have a recently updated course on Scientific Thinking
而且近期上线的《科学思维》课程
with hands-on experiments that let you discover the world in a new way.
课程中的可操作实验 让你以用全新的方式感知世界
With this course, you can learn as you play by solving different scientific puzzles.
我们可以在此课程中通过挑战科学关卡来学习
So if you’d like to see the world with new eyes,
如果你也想打开眼界来看不一样的世界
visit brilliant.org/scishow or click on the link in the description.
访问brilliant.org/scishow 或点击详情页的链接
The first 200 people will get 20% off Brilliant’s annual premium subscription,
前200名订阅者将享受年费8折优惠
and checking them out also helps us, so thanks!
同时能帮助我们做的更好 非常感谢!
[♪ OUTRO]
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视频概述

深入科学研究成果,了解T细胞疗法和干细胞疗法的可能性

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Gina

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsx0Gb5XNlI

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