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10个有着有趣起源的单词|英语词汇课堂

10 Words with Interesting Origins (Etymology) | English Vocabulary Lesson

[轻流行音乐]
(light pop music)
大家好 欢迎来到 和露西学英语
– Hello everyone and welcome back to English with Lucy.
今天我的视频是关于一门全新的学科
Today I’ve got a video about a brand new subject.
我将要和你们探讨语源学
I’m going to talk to you about etymology.
语源学是关于词语的历史
So etymology is the history of a word
和它单词的意思
and then its historical development
随着时间变化的发展
over time of its meaning.
它就像是一个单词的时间线
It’s basically like the timeline of a word.
所以你可以了解它从何处起源
So you see where it originated from.
以及明白它在时间中
And then you can see how it evolved
如何变化和发展
and changed over time.
这是一件很有趣的事
It’s something really, really interesting.
当我学习一个新单词的时候
Often when I learn a new word,
我经常明确地查出它的词源
I’ll definitely look up its etymology
去了解它源于哪种语言
to see which language it originates from,
过去的用法
how it used to be used,
这就是我做的有点书呆子似的事
it’s something a bit nerdy that I do.
但也让我从中获得很多乐趣
It’s something that I get a lot of joy from.
如果你也享受做类似事情的话 记得告诉我
Let me know if you get any joy from doing stuff like that.
我只是很喜欢单词啦
I just like words.
所以今天 我将会选10个单词
So today, I’ve picked ten words with really interesting
它们都有很有趣的起源 我将会和你们聊聊这些单词
origins and I’m going to chat about them with you.
我希望这能激发一点儿
In the hope that it will inspire you to study
你学习单词起源的兴趣
a little bit more about the origin of words.
并且 希望这至少
And also, at the very least,
能够帮助你提高你的英语
help you improve your english.
让我们开始吧
Let’s get started.
第一个 是“三明治”
So, number one, is sandwich.
三明治呢 是两片面包间夹着食物
So a sandwich, food between two slices of bread.
它在英国是最常见的午餐食品
It’s the most common lunch time food in England.
有趣的是 我其实并不喜欢面包
Fun fact though, I don’t really like bread.
我不喜欢它的原因是
The reason that I don’t like it,
我只是不明白它好吃在哪里
I just don’t see the point in it.
我喜欢三明治
I feel like sandwiches,
面包稀释了夹料的味道
the bread dilutes the flavour of the filling so yeah,
所以 我只尝到了夹料的味道
just give me the filling.
是的
Yeah.
言归正传 三明治这个单词
So sandwich, sandwiches actually get their name
实际上起源于一个叫做约翰 蒙塔古的男子
from a man called John Montague
他是桑威奇的第四代伯爵
who was the fourth earl of Sandwich.
他是18世纪的一个贵族
So he was an 18th century aristocrat
而且 他喜欢在游戏桌上
and he used to like to eat his meals
吃他的饭餐
at the game tables.
他喜欢玩纸牌类游戏
He liked to play games like cards.
同时 他又不想因为油腻的手
And he didn’t want to get all the pieces
而弄脏这些纸牌卡片
and cards dirty with his greasy fingers,
所以他总是点两片面包夹着牛肉
so he used to ask for beef between two slices of bread.
这也在他的朋友中间流行了起来
And it caught on with his friends.
他们总是说 你知道的
They used to say, you know,
我要像桑威奇那样吃东西
I’ll have what Sandwich is having.
我要吃一份桑威奇伯爵点的东西
I’ll have a Duke of Sandwich.
最后这就简化为了三明治
And in the end it got shortened down to just a sandwich
这就是我们今天所知道并热爱的食物
and it’s the food that we know and love today.
或者说我们大多数知道并热爱的
Or most of us know and love.
我只是知道它 但不喜欢
I just know it, don’t love it.
是的 实际上在英国
Yeah, so there is actually a place
有一个地方就叫桑威奇
in the UK called Sandwich,
听起来是个奇怪的名字
which sounds like a really bizarre name,
但实际上 这就是这个食物的发源地
but actually, that’s where the food originates from.
好了 下一个我认为很有趣
Okay, the next one I think is really interesting.
它是 好的 这个词
It’s the word nice.
它出自拉丁语
And it comes from Latin to not know
指不知道 无知 但随着时间流逝
or ignorance but then over time it started
它被用来描述一个事物很令人愉快 后来就变成了讨人喜欢的
to be used to describe things as agreeable, then delightful.
今天 我们一般将它用作褒义
Nowadays we use it mostly as a positive adjective.
好了 下一个词 肌肉
Okay, the next one, muscle.
它实际来源于拉丁语 老鼠 这个词
This actually comes from the Latin word mus for mouse.
而且 人们过去基本认为
And basically people used to think
肌肉看起来就像你皮肤下的小老鼠
that muscles looked like little mice under your skin.
所以 这就是肌肉 这个词的来源
So that’s where the word muscle comes from.
好啦 下一个词是上瘾的(有瘾的人)
Okay, the next one, addict.
它实际上来源于拉丁语
This actually comes from the Latin word to devote
指献身 或屈服于某事某物
or to surrender yourself to something
这是用来形容奴隶的
and it was used for slaves.
因此当你说你上瘾了
So by saying you’re an addict,
你的意思就是你是某物某事的奴隶了
you’re saying you’re a slave to something.
实际上在意思上也很接近了
Which is quite accurate really.
好啦 下一个单词 线索
Okay, the next word, clue.
它来源于线索 这个单词 听起来一样 拼写不同
It comes from clew, sounds the same, different spelling.
在古英语里 是指线团
Which meant in old English, a ball of thread.
这是因为一个线团能够指引人
This is because a ball of thread could be used
走出迷宫 解决难题
to guide somebody out of a maze or a labyrinth.
所以这就是线索
So that was a clue.
这就是线索的来源
So that is where clue comes from.
下一个 术语
The next one, jargon.
这是个好词 不是吗?
That is a good word, isn’t it?
我喜欢说术语
I love saying jargon.
术语来源于一个很古老的法语词 jargoun
And jargon comes from the old, old French word, jargoun.
希望我的发音是对的
Hope I’ve said that correctly.
它是指像鸟的鸣叫
Meaning twittering like birds.
所以基本上 当一个人使用很多术语
So basically, when someone’s using a lot of jargon,
他们就像鸟儿在呢喃
they’re twittering like birds,
这不是很好理解
it’s not really understandable,
而且他们说很多废话
and they’re saying a load of rubbish.
好了 下一个
Okay, the next one, this could be considered
这可能会让人觉得有点粗鲁 这个词是牛油果
a little bit rude, the next one is avocado,
它来自阿芝特克语
and it comes from the Aztec word,
不知道是不是可以叫做 ahuakatal
wonder if I can say, ahuakatl.
Ahuakatl
Ahuakatl.
你可以看出来 它们很相似
You can see the similarity.
但是它最基本的意思是 睾丸
But this basically meant, testicle,
也就是雄性性器官
as in the male sex organ.
所以 牛油果在形状上有点相似
So, avocados are sort of similar shapes.
很明显 你可以看出在牛油果和睾丸之间
Obviously, you can see a sort of resemblance
有一些相似性 不管是在外形
in shape and texture between an avocado
还是结构
and a testicle.
而且 它们也被认为是种催情药
And also, they are considered to be aphrodisiacs,
也就是它们可以激发性欲
meaning they boost sex drive.
所以 这就是牛油果的来源
So, that is where the word avocado comes from.
下一个词是威士忌酒
The next one is whisky.
威士忌 是一种我看起来不可能喜欢的饮料
Whisky, that drink that I just cannot seem to like.
当别人递给我的时候 我一般都会接下来
I always accept it when it’s offered to me
并且假装非常成熟的样子
and I try and look grown up
然后说谢谢 请加冰
and say yes, on the rocks please.
随后 呃 不 还是受不了那种味道
And then, ugh, no, can’t do it.
它尝起来像烟屁股
It tastes like fag butts.
对 就是尝起来像烟屁股
Fag butts, it tastes like fag butts.
烟屁股是香烟的尾部
Fag butts are cigarette ends.
好吧 威士忌 实际上是
Well whisky, is actually shortened from
威士忌酒湾的缩写 它来源于古英语威士忌
a whisky bay, and that comes from the old English word,
这个词来源于两个盖尔语单词
usquebaugh, which is derived from two Gaelic words,
uisce 意思是水 bethu 意思是生命
uisce, meaning water, bethu meaning life.
所以 他们是说威士忌是生命之水
So, they’re saying that whisky is water of life.
我觉得可能有些人会觉得很准确
Which I think some would consider to be very accurate.
但不包括我 我认为它是生命的猎手
Not me, I think it’s actually the taker of life.
下一个单词是阴道
The next one is the word vagina.
是的 雌性性器官
Yep, the female organ.
这个词来源于拉丁语
And this word is derived from the Latin word
是指剑鞘 或者鞘 就是能够封住一把刀剑的东西
for sheath, or scabbard, the thing that would cover a sword.
gladius这个单词 意思就是刀剑
And the word gladius, which means sword,
常用来指雄性性器官
is commonly used as to refer
阴茎
to the male sex organ, the penis.
所以 阴道是刀鞘 能够收纳刀剑 阴茎
So, the vagina, the sheath, covered the sword, the gladius.
很有趣
Very interesting.
下一个是 矛盾修饰法
The next one, oxymoron.
它来源于希腊语 oxus
This comes from the Greek word oxus,
它的意思是锋利的 而 moros 指迟钝的
meaning sharp and moros, meaning blunt.
所以 锋利和迟钝 词语本身就形成了矛盾
So, sharp blunt, the word itself is an oxymoron.
我认为这很棒
Which I think is awesome.
啊 我爱死语言了
Ugh, I love languages.
是的 这就是今天的课程
Right, that’s it for today’s lesson.
我知道这有点不一样
I know it was a little bit different,
但我只是想和你分享
but I just kind of wanted to share one
一下我对语源学的热爱
of my passions with you which is etymology
以及单词的来源
and just where words come from.
我发现这特别特别有趣
I find it really, really interesting and I think it,
而且我认为 如果你开始研究语源学
if you start to take etymology and the origin
和词汇的起源以及它的历史
and history of words onboard,
你可以迅速拓展你的词汇量
you can really quickly expand your vocabulary
而且你可以学着用更有意义的方式去表达
and you can learn to speak in a more meaningful way as well.
不要忘了在我所有的社交媒体上联系我哦
Don’t forget to connect with me on all of my social media.
我有脸书 Ins 还有推特
I’ve got my Facebook, Instagram, and my Twitter,
下一节课见啦
and I will see you soon for another lesson.
[飞吻]
(kiss)
[轻时髦音乐]
(light funky music)

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视频概述

这节课露西将带你研究单词背后的起源和历史,说不定能激发你对语源学的兴趣哦!你知道三明治的起源吗?你知道众多英语单词的历史吗?一起来看看吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=loGKkB8pTK0

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