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关于地球你不知道的十件事

10 Things You Never Knew About The Earth

关于地球你不知道的十件事
10 amazing things you didn’t know about the Earth
10 秘密海洋
10. Secret ocean
科学家在距离地球表面660公里处
Scientists have discovered a vast reservoir of water
发现了一个巨大的蓄水库
located 660 kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface.
这个地下海洋藏在一个叫做Rinwoodite的蓝色岩石中
The underground ocean is hidden inside a blue rock called ringwoodite,
这个岩石就像一块海绵 吸收氧气和水分
which acts like a sponge, trapping hydrogen and water.
藏在地表下的水
There is enough water beneath the Earth ’ s surface
足以装满三个地球上的海洋
to fill the Earth ’ s oceans three times over.
科学家史蒂夫·雅克布森认为地表的海洋
Scientist Steve Jacobsen suggests that the Earth’s surface oceans
最初是由藏在地表里的水 在地心引力的作用下流到地球表面的
were first formed when trapped water was driven to the surface by geological activity.
这与广泛流传的
This contradicts the widely accepted theory
“彗星撞击地球于是将水带到了地球”的理论背道而驰
that icy comets deposited water onto Earth.
9 不均衡引力
9. Uneven gravity
许多人认为地球上的引力是平均分布的
Many people assume that gravity is distributed evenly on Earth,
但有一些地方 比如加拿大的哈德逊湾
but there are certain places, such as Hudson Bay in Canada
受到的地心引力比地球其它地方小
that actually experience less gravity than other regions of the globe.
在哈德逊湾 之所以会这样
In Hudson Bay this occurs
是因为它的陆地质量比较小
because there is only a small amount of land mass,
原因是地表冰川融化
due to retreating glaciers on the surface
和地核的旋转岩浆
and swirling magma in the earth’s core.
一颗名叫“重力场与稳定海洋环流探险者”的卫星
A satellite called the ‘Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer’
于2009年射入太空
was sent into space in 2009
使命是制作一张地球重力场地图
to create a map of the planet ’ s gravitational field.
它所标注的地球重力具有极高的精确度
It mapped Earth’s gravity with extraordinary accuracy
被地质物理学家用来测量海洋环流
and is used by geophysicists to measure ocean circulation,
海平面变化以及冰动力学
sea level change and ice dynamics.
8 延长的一天时常
8. Longer Earth days
在大约6亿2000万年前
Around 620 million years ago,
一天的时长只有21.9小时
there were only 21.9 hours in a day.
由月亮和太阳重力带来的海洋潮汐
Ocean tides generated by the Moon and Sun s gravity
使得每一天的时间每过一个世纪就增加1.7毫秒
have added 1.7 milliseconds to the length of a day each century,
因为它们改变了地球的旋转动力
because they alter the planet ’ s rotational momentum.
一天的时长同样也会受到
The length of the day can also be affected
自然事件的影响 比如2011年日本的地震
by natural events such as the 2011 earthquake in Japan,
将一天的时间缩短了
which actually shortened the length of each Earth day.
那次地震改变了地球质量的分布
The quake changed the distribution of the Earth ’ s mass
使得它的旋转速度稍微加快了
causing it to rotate slightly faster,
由此将我们一天的时长缩短了大约1.8毫秒
decreasing our day by about 1.8 microseconds.
7 盘古大陆
7. Pangaea
盘古大陆是在3亿年前的晚古生代
Pangaea was a supercontinent that existed
和中生代早期一块巨大的陆地
during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras 300 million years ago.
由于地球板块的运动
Formed by the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates,
使得它在约1.75亿年以前开始分裂
it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.
在这个时候 地球上大部分干燥的陆地
At this time, most of the dry land on Earth
都在这块占了地球表面近1/3面积的
was joined in one huge land mass that
巨大陆地内
covered nearly a third of the planet’s surface.
地质学家相信 由于板块运动
Geologists believe that due to tectonic plate movements,
在未来2.5亿年内
in 250 million years,
地球陆地将会再次被合并
the Earth ’ s continents will be merged again
成为一块巨大的陆地
into one giant land mass,
形成 “终极盘古大陆”
forming ‘Pangaea Ultima.’
目前在太平洋板块的
Currently each year Hawaii,
夏威夷
which sits on the Pacific Plate,
每年以三英尺的速度靠近阿拉斯加州
moves nearly three inches closer to Alaska.
6 这里很热
6. Hot in here
在未来11亿年内
Over the next 1.1 billion years,
科学家预计太阳的
scientists predict that the Sun will get
亮度和热度将会逐渐增加10%
progressively brighter and hotter by about 10% compared to now.
40亿年之后 我们的海洋将会蒸发
In 4 billion years, our oceans will evaporate,
造成一连贯的温室效应
resulting in a runaway greenhouse effect
最终使得气温骤升750华氏度
that will send temperatures soaringabove 750 degrees Fahrenheit,
使地球上的生命成为不可能
rendering life on Earth impossible.
75亿年之后
In 7.5 billion years,
地球将会变成一个巨大的沙漠 就像今天的火星
Earth will become a vast desert similar to Mars today,
太阳将会扩展成为一个红色的巨大星球
and the Sun will expand into a red giant.
科学家预计 到那个时候太阳将会把地球一并吞没
At this point, scientists predict that the Sun will engulf Earth altogether,
这意味着我们的星球的终极末日
meaning the definite end of our planet.
5 地球曾经是紫色的
5. Earth used to be purple
有一个天体物理学假说 认为地球过去曾是紫色的
There is an astrobiological hypothesis that suggests that Earth used to be purple.
科学家相信在植物还没有覆盖如此广泛前
Scientists believe that before plants as we know them became dominant,
古老的微生物可能使用的是分子
ancient microbes might have used a molecule
而不是叶绿素来吸收太阳光线
other than chlorophyll to harness the Sun rays.
这种叫视黄醛的分子让地球的生物看起来呈紫罗兰色调
The molecule, called retinal, gave Earth’s organisms a violet hue.
来自马里兰大学的
According to Shil DasSarma,
微生物学家Shil DasSarma称
a microbial geneticist from the University of Maryland,
叶绿素因为其更容易吸收
chlorophyll gradually replaced retinal
光线的特点而逐渐取代了视黄醛
because it is more efficient at absorbing light,
因此紫色就变成了绿色
and thus purple became green.
4 地球上的生命是如何开始的?
4. How did life on Earth begin?
地球上约有870万种不同的生物
There are around 8.7 million different species on Earth,
但科学家仍无法完全确定 地球上的生命到底是如何开始的
but scientists are still not entirely sure how life on Earth began.
大部分科学家认为生物由
Most scientists believe that living things developed from molecules
有繁殖能力的分子形成
that were able to replicate themselves,
就像DNA那样
rather like DNA does.
这些分子要么来自于远太空
These molecules either came from somewhere further out in space,
要么就是在当时的地球状况下产生的
or they were produced by the conditions on Earth at the time.
一项新的研究肯定了后者
A new study suggests the latter
并提出生命基石的建立
and argues that the building blocks of life,
比如这些对于创建DNA十分必要的化合物
such as the compounds that would be necessary to create DNA,
在地球上第一种生命出现之前就已经存在了
existed on Earth prior to the creation of the first life forms.
3 地球是个崎岖不平的球体
3. Earth is a bumpy globe
尽管有成千上万的照片
Despite countless photos of Earth
把地球呈现成一个完美的球形
depicted as a perfect sphere,
地球实际上是一个崎岖不平不完美的球体
Planet Earth is actually an imperfect bumpy globe.
这是由于地轴快速旋转产生的离心力
This is because the force of Earth ’ s rapid rotation
使地球在赤道处向外受力
on its axis causes it to push outwards at the equator,
因此看起来就像一个压扁的球
making it look like a squashed ball.
由于地球不规则的形状
Due to the Earth ’ s uneven shape,
珠穆朗玛峰并不是最高的山峰
Mount Everest isn ’ t actually the tallest mountain.
假如从海平面开始测量
If measured from sea level,
珠穆朗玛峰是最高的
Everest would top the list,
但如果从地心开始测量
but measuring from the center of the Earth,
钦博拉索山则位居首位
Mount Chimborazo takes the crown.
2 水下山脉
2. Underwater mountain range
地球上最长的山峰有90%都在水底
The longest mountain range on Earth is actually 90 % underwater.
这叫做大洋中脊系统
It is called the mid-ocean ridge system,
这是由于板块运动所形成的
and was formed by the movement of plate tectonics.
50年代的一项详细调查显示
Surveyed in detail in the 1950s,
水下山脉在全世界延展长达8万多公里
it stretches for 80,000 kilometers all around the world,
并且将近是地表最长山脉——
and is nearly 20 times longer than the longest range on the surface,
安第斯山脉总长的20倍
the Andes Mountains.
此外 它还包含上千个
Furthermore, it consists of thousands of individual volcanoes
偶尔会喷发的火山
that sporadically erupt.
每年有大约20次火山爆发
Around 20 volcanic eruptions occur each year,
而这导致了2.5千米新海床的形成
and this causes the formation of 2.5 kilometers of new seafloor.
1 地磁反转
1. Geomagnetic Reversal
地球的磁场正变得越来越不稳定
The Earth’s magnetic field is becoming less stable.
研究人员认为 随着地球外壳的冷却和凝固
Researchers believe that the planet ’ s inner core is slowly growing,
地球内核正逐渐变大
as the outer core cools and solidifies,
造成地球的磁场晃动更加频繁
resulting in more frequent flips of Earth ’ s magnetic field.
换句话说
In other words,
假如今天的磁场两极发生逆转
if the polarity of today ’ s magnetic field were reversed,
所有指南针上的南北极指针
the North and South markings on all compasses
都会出现180度的误差
would be 180 degrees wrong.
通过研究过去上百块磁极逆转的化石记录
Using fossil records from hundreds of past magnetic polarity reversals,
科学家认为磁极的逆转
scientists have determined that the reversal of the magnetic poles
不会对人类生活造成严重影响
should not have a dramatic effect on human life.
然而有一些动物 比如鸽子和鲸鱼
However, some animals, such as pigeons and whales,
依靠地球磁场来判断方向感
use the Earth ’ s magnetic field for a sense of direction.
因此如果磁极逆转
So, if a reversal occurs in their lifetime,
它们可能就需要拥有不同的导航方法
they might have to develop different methods of navigation.

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对于我们赖以生存的地球,你了解多少? 快来看看关于地球你不知道的十件事情,一定会让你不禁感叹地球和宇宙的的神奇。

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视频来源

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