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10有关个人类情绪的心理学事实 – 译学馆
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10有关个人类情绪的心理学事实

10 Psychological Facts about Human Feelings (Part 2)

情感 如同水
Feelings, like water,
可以像海啸一般猛烈 也可以如涟漪一般温和
can be as strong as a tidal wave or as gentle as a ripple.
就像海面上的波浪一样
Like the waves on the ocean,
潮起潮落 一不小心可能就会将你淹没
they rise and fall and can swamp you if you’re not careful.
一个熟练的水手可以利用海潮去到任何想去的地方
A skilled sailor can use the tides to go anywhere they want
而笨拙的人注定只能被海潮推动或放逐
whereas a bungler is doomed to follow where the waves lead them.
为了帮助大家成为优秀的掌舵者
To help us all sail true,
这里有10个关于人类情感的心理学事实
here are 10 more psychological facts about human feelings.
第一个 情绪信号
One: Emotional Signals.
开拓型社会科学家欧文·戈夫曼
Erving Goffman, a trailblazing social scientist
区分出了两种情感信号:
distinguished two types of emotional signals:
“有意”和“无意”
intentional and unintentional.
他称这两种类型的信号为“给予和流露”
He called these two types of signals ”given and given off”,
它们是一种交流形式
which serve as forms of communication.
戈夫曼将他的理论以演员表演的戏剧命名
Goffman named his theory
以演员们在舞台上表演的戏剧命名
after the drama that actors perform on stage
表演时 演员们需要刻画角色的情绪
where they try to portray the characters emotions
而隐藏自己的情绪
and hide their own.
就是最优秀的演员也会在这里遇到困难
Even the best actors have trouble with this.
“给予”的一个例子也许是
An example of a”given” sign may be
你听完老板说的笑话后的大笑
that loud laugh you make at your boss’s joke.
“流露”信号可能就是当你因为他糟糕的幽默感
A “given off” sign would be your eyes unintentionally
无意识地眯起了眼睛
squinting in annoyance at his bad sense of humor:
心想 “不会吧 都2019年了
”really, he’s making jokes about
还拿泽西海岸开玩笑?”
the Jersey Shore in 2019? ”
第二个 典型的情绪体验vs普遍的情绪效应
Two: Prototypical Emotional Experiences versusGeneral Emotional Effect.
想象一下从一只熊身边逃走 很可怕吧?
Imagine running away from a bear, pretty scary huh?
现在把熊拿走
Now take away the bear,
突然间你就只是在进行越野赛跑
suddenly you’re just running a cross-country race.
近期 情绪科学家开始区别
Emotion scientists have recently
开始区别
begun to make a distinction
指向特定事物的典型情绪
between prototypical emotions that are directed at a
如恐惧
definite thing, for example, fear
以及不指向特定事物的情绪
and emotions that aren’t directly at anything in particular,
如一种普遍的幸福感
such as a feeling of general well-being.
焦虑症是无目标情绪效应的
Anxiety is a notorious form of
一种不良形式
undirected emotional effect.
患焦虑症的人们
People who have anxiety,
通常说不出他们在为什么事而感到焦虑
often can’t name exactly what they are anxious about,
但科学家们希望
but scientists hope that
通过区别情绪类型
by distinguishing between these categories of emotion,
我们可以提出更好的治疗方案
we can come up with better therapies.
第三个 感觉良好和感觉充满热情
Three: Feeling Good and Feeling Enthusiastic.
哈佛大学心理学家贝内德克·库尔迪认为
Benedek kurdi, a Harvard psychologist believes that
所有的画面都可以从两个层面上联系起来
all images can be related on two levels,
就是它们给你的感觉有多好以及
how good they make you feel and
它们让你的感觉有多热情
how enthusiastic they make you feel.
在专业术语中 良好的感觉被称作“效价”
In technical terms, the good feeling is called”Valence”
而热情的感觉被称为“唤起”
and the enthusiastic feeling is called”Arousal”.
知道这一点可以帮助我们
Knowing this helps us figure out
弄清楚我们的感受
whether we’re feelings say,
是既开心又疲惫 即低唤起 高效价
pleasantly tired, which is low arousal but high valence
或是感觉懒惰 即低唤起和低效价
or lazy which is low arousal and low valence.
在第一种情况中 你应该休息
In one case, you should put your feet up
而在第二种情况下 你应该继续工作
while on the other, you should get back to work.
还有一些例子:
Some more examples:
一张有两只天鹅的照片让人感觉很好
a picture of two swans makes people feel good
但并不会让人感到狂热
but not all that enthusiastic
然而一幅礼花绽放的照片也让人感觉良好
whereas a picture of fireworks makes people feel about as good
但更让人热情高涨
but a lot more enthusiastic.
一张小猫的照片让人感觉怎么样呢?
Where do pictures of kittens fall?
它也会让人感觉良好并且热情高涨
Both very good and very enthusiastic.
当然 互联网已经知道这一点了
Of course, the internet already knew that.
第四个 标点符号的情绪人生
Four: The Emotional Life of Punctuation.
比较这两条短信:
Compare these two text messages:
‘I’m done’或‘I’m done!’
“I’m done” or”I’m done!”.
它们给人感觉不一样 对吧?
They feel different, right?
第一个像是分手短信的开头
One is the beginning of a breakup text
而第二个像是某人在庆祝考试结束
and the other is someone celebrating the end of exams.
心理学家认为标点符号和短信
Psychologists believe that punctuation and text messages
可以代替对话中的非语言暗示
can replace nonverbal cues used in conversations.
虽然现在发短信息微信很流行
While texting became popular,
但一些人担心这会让我们
some people worried that it would lead to us
忘记如何与他人进行联结
forgetting how to relate to each other.
现实证明了发短信微信并不是世界的终结
It turns out that text messaging isn’t the end of the world.
不过虽然我们可以用短信息交流一些情感
However, while we can communicate some emotions over text,
但重要的话最好还是留到当面说
it may be best to save important conversations for in-person
因为面谈会提供
because in-person conversations
更多的非语言信号
have much more nonverbal signs.
第五个 情绪词汇
Five: Emotional Vocabulary.
丽莎·费尔德曼·巴雷特是一位肩负重任的心理学家
Lisa Feldman Barrett is a psychologist on a mission,
她想通过减少药物的使用及减少心理挣扎
she wants to help people use less medication,
来帮助大家整体感觉更好
fight less frequently and feel better overall.
要怎么做呢?
How?
通过增加大家的情感词汇量
By increasing the size of their emotional vocabulary.
据她说
According to her,
一个能区别正当的愤怒
someone who can distinguish between
以及差劲感的人
feeling righteous indignation and feeling lousy
能够以更熟练的方式
is better equipped to respond to those feelings
回应这些感受
in a skillful way.
用大量词汇表达情感的人
People who use large vocabularies of words for emotions,
看医生的次数更少
visit the doctor less
当他们被冒犯时也不太可能
and are less likely to lash out
反应过度地泄愤
when they’ve been offended.
谁能想到通往幸福的道路
Who knew that the path to happiness
是从读字典开始的呢?
begins in reading the dictionary?
第六个 情绪放大
Six: Emotional Amplification.
昨天 鲍勃因错过公交车而上班迟到了
Yesterday, bob missed his bus and was late to work.
科学家们认为认为他感受到的情绪
Scientists believe that the emotions he felt about that
取决于情绪放大这一过程
depend on a process called emotional amplification.
如果很容易想象出一个好的结果
If it’s easy to imagine a good outcome
比如能够按时上班
such as making it to work on time,
他就会因倒霉的事情发生而感到非常生气
he would be really annoyed when something bad happened,
但如果很难想象事情会进行得顺利
but if it’s hard to imagine things going well,
坏结果对他来说就不会很闹心
he wouldn’t be too bothered at a bad outcome.
所以下次你因为某事感到生气
The next time you get annoyed about something,
你可以安慰自己是在正确的轨道上前进
you can console yourself that you are on the right track.
如果你已经完全绝望
If you were completely hopeless,
从一开始你就不可能生气了
you wouldn’t get annoyed in the first place.
所以也许鲍勃的朋友们应该告诉他
So maybe his friends should tell him that
他们很钦佩他努力做到准时上班
they admire him for trying so hard to be punctual.
第七个 杏仁体
Seven: The Amygdala.
约翰尼·斯通是《神奇四侠》重中的霹雳火
Johnny Storm from the Fantastic Four is the Human Torch.
但你知道你是人类火警吗?
But did you know that you’re the human fire alarm?
在某种意义上 你确实是哟
Well, in a way you are.
每个人的大脑里都有一个被称为杏仁体的区域
Each of our brains has a region called the amygdala.
当我们感到强烈的情绪时
This area becomes active
这个区域就会变得活跃起来
when we feel strong emotions.
科学家们用“显著”一词
Scientists use the word”salient”
形容这些非常强烈的情绪
to refer to these very strong emotions.
在心理学上 显著性是指任何
In psychology, salience refers to any perception
从其他事物中脱颖而出的知觉
that stands out from the rest.
负面情绪 如恐惧和愤怒
Negative emotions like fear and anger
都是天生就非常显著的
are naturally very salient,
所以它们会让杏仁体活跃起来
so they make our amygdala light up.
我猜我们都有点蜘蛛侠的第六感
I guess we all have a bit of spidey sense.
第八个 情绪和决策
Eight: Emotions and Decision-Making.
心理学家开始发现
Psychologists are starting to discover that
我们的决策过程
our decision-making process
与我们的情绪密切相关
is intimately wrapped up in our emotions,
这有好有坏
in both good and bad ways.
即使那些看起来很直接的决定 比如
Even decisions that seem cut and dry such as
“我在轮盘桌上赌20美元黑色”这样的决定
”I’ll bet $ 20 on black at the roulette table”
也充满感情色彩
are highly charged with feeling.
我们的情绪是我们的向导
Our emotions serve as guides,
那些大脑中喋喋不休的声音 如 “这太冒险了”
those nagging feelings of”this is too risky”
或者“我不确定要这样做”
or “I don’t feel sure about this”
是值得听取的
are worth listening to.
早期的学者认为
While early generations of scholars believed
情绪总是对决策产生消极影响
that emotions always interfered negatively with decision-making,
但现在我们知道了它们有时是有帮助的
we now know that they can sometimes help.
但安全起见 在你情绪不稳定时
But just to be safe, if you’re feeling emotional,
还是最好远离赌桌
maybe it’s a good idea to stay away from the craps table.
第九个 政治竞选中的感性说服
Nine: Emotional Appeals in Political Campaigns.
政客们从来都不是
Politicians aren’t known for being
以身为最诚实的人而闻名
the most honest people,
但他们的疯狂中似乎确实有一套方法
but there does seem to be a method to their madness.
对2004年的美国总统大选的研究发现
Researchers studying the 2004 U.S. presidential election
政治广告通常遵循着固定的模式
found that political ads generally followed a set pattern.
在竞选初期 广告的重点是唤起人们的自豪感
Early in the campaign, ads focus on invoking pride.
在竞选接近尾声时 广告的重点是引发恐惧
Near the end of the campaign, ads focus on provoking fear.
其中的信息是
The message seems to be,
如果想要一个人和你一起走很长的路
if you want someone to go with you for the long haul,
那就迎合他们的自尊心
appeal to their pride
如果你想要他们采取行动
and if you want them to take action,
那就唤起他们的自我保护意识
appeal to their sense of self-preservation.
第十个 表达规则
Ten: Display Rules.
你是否曾经给别人讲过笑话
Have you ever told someone a joke
但他们却面无表情
and been met with a stony face
当你问他们为什么觉得不好笑时
and when you ask them why they didn’t find it funny,
他们却说:“我觉得超级搞笑啊”?
they say” I actually find it hilarious”?
文化心理学家们会研究
Cultural psychologists study
情绪表现规则
something called emotional display rules.
不同的文化有不同的
Different cultures have different norms
表达情感的规范
about expressing emotions.
在一些文化中 情绪表达很鲜明
In some cultures, emotions are expressed very obviously.
我们把这些文化称为放大情感的文化
We refer to these cultures as ones that amplify emotions,
在其他文化中 即使是强烈的感觉
whereas in others, they are not expressed at all
他们也不会表现出来
even when they’re strongly felt.
这些文化被认为是否定感情的
These cultures are said to negate emotions.
当你在和来自其他文化的人交谈时
When you’re speaking to someone from another culture,
最好先假定他们表现的情绪是无辜的
it’s wise to give them the benefit of the doubt,
一个喜剧演员必须了解他的观众群体
a comedian has to know their audience.
以上就是十个关于人类情绪的
This has been 10 more psychological facts
心理学事实
about human feelings.
有些人对未来感到悲观
Some people feel gloomy about the future
并称科技让我们失去了
and say that technology is making us lose our touch
与创造性情绪的联系
with our creative emotional sides,
但正如我们现在知道的
but as being learned
情绪远远没有在生活中缺席
emotions are far from absent,
它本能地和我们在一起
they are with us by instinct,
在我们做决定的时候 它就在我们身边
are present with us whenever we make decisions
甚至清楚的出现在大脑扫描的过程中
and even show up in scans of our brains.
有句话说 情绪
There’s a quote which says that
应该被承认 被感受 然后允许它离开
emotions should be owned, felt, then allowed to leave,
我没有比这更好的建议了
I can’t think of no better advice.

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