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10种心理防卫机制 – 译学馆
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10种心理防卫机制

10 Psychological Defense Mechanisms

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来吧!心理学
Psycho2go.net.
防卫机制是
Defense mechanisms are
大脑保护我们免受悲伤思想
the brain’s way of keeping us safe from being fully-aware
和情绪影响的方式
of unpleasant thoughts and feelings.
有时我们可以选择
Sometimes we can choose to
使用某种防卫机制
use certain defense mechanisms,
比如压抑 拒绝以及合理化
like repression, denial and rationalization.
以下是十种
Below is a list of ten of
最常见的防卫机制
the most common defense mechanisms.
1.转移情感
1.Displacement.
即转移类似来自
The diversion of emotions, such as anger
源头和替代目标的愤怒
from the original source to a substitute target.
例如
For example,
你的朋友说了些伤人的话
your friend says something hurtful
但是你没有回击你的朋友
and instead of confronting your friend,
反而之后冲着你的妹妹发脾气
you later lash out at your sister.
2.投射
2. Projection.
即将某人自己的情绪 想法
The projection of one’s own feelings,
或动机映射到他人身上
thoughts or motives onto someone else.
例如 如果一个人爱撒谎
For example, a person who is cheating
那么在他的印象中
is under the impression that
他的伴侣也欺骗他们
their partner is cheating on them.
3.合理化
3. Rationalization.
即利用错误但看似可信的借口
Developing false though plausible excuses
为自己的
to justify irrational
不当行为作辩护
and/or unacceptable behavior.
例如
For example,
从百思买等企业连锁店
stealing from a corporate chain store,
偷东西
such as Best Buy,
然后替偷窃行为辩护道
and justifying the theft by saying
他们能有上百万的利润 所以偷这么点没关系的
“They make millions in profits, so it doesn’t matter.”
4.反应形成
4. Reaction Formation.
即你的行为与感受相反
Behaving in a way opposite to how you feel.
例如
For example,
一个人被另一个人吸引
when a person is romantically attracted to someone,
但是他们坚持声称他们不喜欢那个人
but adamantly claims that they dislike the someone.
5.退行机制
5. Regression.
即表现出幼稚行为模式
Reverting to childlike patterns of behavior.
例如
For example,
学生考试成绩不理想
a student gets a bad grade on their test
他们会冲着他们的父母或老师尖叫 哭泣
and screams and cries at their parents or teacher.
6.压抑拒绝
6. Repression Denial.
即压抑和埋葬那些
Pushing or burying thoughts and feelings that
潜意识里的痛苦想法和情绪
are distressing into the subconscious.
例如
For example,
上瘾者会拒绝承认他们有瘾
an addict will deny they have an addiction.
因为他们可以在家庭和工作中表现良好
Because they can function fine at working at home.
压抑的例子有
An example of repression
一个亲眼目睹别人犯罪的人
would be a person who witnesses a crime
想不起这件事
being unable to remember the event.
7.升华
7. Sublimation.
即重新接受不可接受的冲动
The refocusing of unacceptable impulses,
想法和情绪
thoughts and our emotions into more acceptable ones.
例如
For example,
攻击性冲动的人
A person who is experiencing aggressive impulses,
将这种能量
instead challenges that energy
变为严苛的训练
into rigorous exercise.
8.分裂
8. Dissociation.
即从现实和本我中分离
The detachment from reality and from oneself
并寻找另一种本我的替代
and the finding of another representation of self
去应对极端的压力和冲突
to cope with extreme stress or conflict.
利用分裂作为防卫机制的人
A person who uses dissociation as a defense mechanism
和现实分离
disconnects from reality,
生活中自己的世界中
and lives in their own world,
在自己的世界 他们无需
in which they do not
经历长时间不可承受的
experience unbearable thoughts,
想法 情绪和记忆
feelings or memories for a period of time.
9.理智化
9. Intellectualization.
即当面临不可接受的情况
Overthinking and the misdirection of focus
行为和冲动时的
when confronted with unacceptable situations,
过度思考和过度关注
behaviors or impulses.
例如
For example,
一个得知
a person who has been told
家人去世的人
the close family member has died,
开始过度关注
begins to focus on and
过度思考葬礼的细节
overthinks the details of planning a funeral etc.,
而不是表达他们的悲伤
instead of expressing their grief.
10.补偿
10. Compensation.
即利用优势
The counterbalancing of perceived flaws
使其与缺点或劣势平衡
or weaknesses by instead emphasizing strengths.
例如
For example,
一个人说 自己不会画画
the person says they can’t draw,
但是他们擅长舞蹈
but they’re really good at dancing.
你使用的是哪种防卫机制
What defense mechanisms do you use?
在下方留言与我们分享你的想法
Share your thoughts with us below.
还有 别忘了订阅
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and check out our patreon.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching!
嗨 大家好!我只是想过来
Hey, everybody! I just want to
亲自感谢你们
give a personal thank-you video
一如既往地支持
for you guys for always supporting
《来吧!心理学》 使得这一切都变得可能
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我们的心愿是想要心理学
Our vision is to make psychology
尽可能触手可及
as accessible as possible,
帮助大家促进自我意识
so that it promotes self-awareness
并帮助大家成长
and it helps you guys grow.
然而 我们想为大家做更多的视频
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看看这串手链
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我希望你们有愉快的一天
and I hope you guys have an amazing day.
再见
Bye!
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视频概述

一起来了解一下心理防卫机制吧。你使用的是哪种呢?

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

Felicity

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfeLzjqXemw

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