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10种人格障碍闪课 – 译学馆
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10种人格障碍闪课

10 Personality Disorders Crash Course

[music]
[音乐]
If I say the phrase:personality disorder,
如果我说:人格障碍
what do you think of?
你会想到什么?
Psychopaths and serial killers?
精神病患者和连环杀手?
People like john gacy,
像约翰·盖西这样的人
or the fictional Patrick Bateman
以及《美国心理医生》中
from American Psycho?
虚构的帕特里克·贝特曼?
Even those
即使是
who are well versed in psychological disorders,
那些对抑郁症 焦虑症
like depression,anxiety and schizophrenia
和精神分裂症 等心理疾病非常精通的人
may have a shallow understanding of
对人格障碍的理解
personality disorders,
也可能很肤浅
which can contribute to the stigmas
这会让他们
that are attached to them.
背负上一些污名
And while psychopaths II falls under
二级精神病属于
a particular personality disorder,
一种特殊的人格障碍
antisocial personality disorder
反社会人格障碍
there were actually 10 personality disorders
在DSM第五版中实际有
in the DSM V.
10种人格障碍
If you’re interested in learning more about
如果你对更多关于人格障碍
personality disorder,
的知识感兴趣
we’re sharing a quick crash course for you.
我将为你分享一个快速速成教程
Personality disorders
人格障碍
are defined as a type of mental disorder,
被定义为一种精神障碍
in which you’re thinking,
此中 你的思维
functioning and behavior are rigid and unhealthy.
功能和行为都是僵化和不健康的
These unhealthy traits can cause significant problems
这些不健康的特质会导致严重的问题
and limitations and relationships,
和限制以及人际关系
social activities,work ,school and other situations.
社会活动 工作 学校等其他情况
The DSM sets our criteria for 10 personality disorders.
DSM为我们设定了10种人格障碍的标准
And these disorders are grouped into
这些疾病被
three clusters or categories.
分为三类
Clusters A, B and C.
集群A B和C
Cluster A is considered the odd eccentric cluster.
集群A被认为是古怪的人
And consists a paranoid personality disorder,
包括偏执型人格障碍
schizoid personality disorder,
精神分裂型人格障碍
and schizotypal personality disorder.
分裂型人格障碍
People in this cluster often behavior in strange ways,
这一群体中的人经常以奇怪的方式行事
and main particular struggle with social situations.
主要是在特定的社会环境中挣扎
Paranoid personality disorder.
偏执型人格障碍
Have you ever had feelings of paranoia?
你有过偏执的感觉吗?
Or seemed someone walking
或者好像有人
behind you was following you?
在你后面跟着你?
For someone with paranoid personality disorder,
对于有偏执型人格障碍的人来说
they often have extreme feelings of paranoia.
他们通常会有极端的偏执感
They feel everyone is out to get them,
他们觉得每个人都想抓住他们
and are hyper aware of danger.
并对危险有高度的警觉
They mistrust others
他们不信任别人
and often don’t get close to people,
而且不经常接近别人
for fear that person will hurt them.
因为害怕那个人会伤害他们
Schizoid personality disorder.
精神分裂型人格障碍
Do you know someone who is a bit of a loner?
你认识一个有点孤僻的人吗?
Or who seems to touch from others?
又或者谁似乎在和别人接触?
People with schizoid personality disorder,
患有精神分裂型人格障碍的人
take the idea of being a loner to the extreme.
把孤独的想法发挥到了极致
It is characterized by social detachment
它的特征是对社会冷漠
and restricted emotions.
和有限的情感
They prefer solitude to other’s company.
相较于陪伴 他们更喜欢独处
But they tend to miss social cues
但他们往往会错过社交暗示
and come across as cold or aloof.
给人留下冷酷或冷漠的印象
Schizotypal personality disorder.
分裂型人格障碍
This one is similar to schizoid with one key difference.
这个类似于精神分裂但是有一个关键的区别
Do you know someone who believes in odd things?
你认识相信怪事的人吗?
Fairies,magic,
仙女 魔法
things that are otherwise considered strange?
那些被认为是奇怪的东西?
One of the key features and schizotypal
分裂型人格障碍的
personality disorder,
主要特征之一
is a so called magical thinking.
就是所谓的“神奇思维”
They’re often awkward in social situations,
他们在社交场合通常很尴尬
much like those with schizoid personality disorder,
就像那些患有神经分裂人格障碍的人一样
but also experienced perceptual
也会经历感知
and cognitive distortions.
和认知扭曲
As well as displaying erratic behavior,
除了表现不稳定的行为外
this personality disorder is likable
这种人格障碍
to the more well-known condition
更容易导致更广为人知
schizophrenia.
的精神分裂症
They are very closely linked with a lot of overlap.
他们紧密相连 有很多重叠
When we need that portrays schizophrenia
当我们需要描绘精神分裂症时
which we recommend is the movie:
我们推荐2001年的
A Beautiful Mind from 2001.
电影《美丽心灵》
Due to the overlap this gives you an idea of
由于重叠 这给了你一个
what people with a schizotypal diagnosis are like.
被诊断为精神分裂的人是什么样的想法
Cluster B is considered the dramatic cluster,
集群B被认为是戏剧化人格集群
and consists of borderline personality disorder,
由边缘型人格障碍
histrionic personality disorder,
表演型人格障碍
narcissistic personality disorder,
自恋型人格障碍
and antisocial personality disorder.
和反社会人格障碍组成
People in this cluster often behavior in dramatic ways,
这类人的行为往往很戏剧化
which can lead them to struggle
这可能导致他们
to maintain stable relationships.
很难维持稳定的关系
Borderline personality disorder.
边缘型人格障碍
Do you have a friend who seems to
你是否有这样的朋友
switch opinions on people very quickly ,
他似乎很快就会改变对别人的看法
or experiences mood swings and instability?
或者经历情绪波动和不稳定?
These are key features
这些是下一种
from the next personality disorder,
人格障碍的主要特征
which seems to be the most common.
似乎是最常见的
People with borderline have
有边界的人有
a big problem with instability.
很大的不稳定性的问题
Both in moods and in their sense of self.
无论是在情绪上还是在自我意识上
They may also tend to engage in risky,
他们也可能倾向于从事危险的
and passive behaviors like drugs and self-harm.
消极的行为 比如吸毒和自残
Seeing the world in black and white
黑白分明的世界
can also influence them to engage in splitting,
也会影响他们分裂
which is when their feelings towards
也就是当他们对一个人的感情
a person swings drastically.
剧烈波动的时候
Borderline personality disorder is portrayed in the film:
边缘型人格障碍在下述电影中被描绘
Girl Interrupted.
惊魂女郎
The main character is diagnosed with
主角在自杀未遂后
borderline personality disorder,after a suicide attempt,
被诊断为患有边缘型人格障碍
and the film focuses on her stay
电影主要讲述了她
in a mental institution.
在精神病院的经历
Histrionic personality disorder.
表演型人格障碍
We all know someone who loves
我们都知道有人
being the center of attention,right?
喜欢成为关注的焦点 对吧?
And thrives in the spotlight.
并在聚光灯下茁壮成长
People with histrionic disorder
患有表演型人格障碍的人
take this to the extreme.
把这一点发挥到了极致
They tend to excessively show their emotions
当他们不是关注的焦点时
and are very uncomfortable,
他们往往会过度的表现
when they are not the center of attention.
自己的情绪 并感到非常不舒服
They also tend to be easily
他们也容易受到
influenced by others opinions.
他人意见的影响
People who love to be the center of attention
喜欢成为聚会 课堂或
at parties,in class,or other situations,
其他场合焦点的人
could be suffering from this disorder.
可能患有这种疾病
Are you enjoying this video?
你喜欢这个视频吗?
We run a quarterly magazine,
我们在经营一本季刊
which is currently running a mini-series
目前正在经营一个关于
on personality disorders,
人格障碍的迷你系列
to find out more,check out the patreon
想了解更多 请访问patreon
www.patreon.com/Psych2GoMagazine.
www.patreon.com/Psych2GoMagazine.
And our store
和我们的商店
www.psych2go.shop.
www.psych2go.shop.
Narcissistic personality disorder.
自恋型人格障碍
This is a term we’ve all heard.
我们都听说过这个词
People talk about having met narcissists
人们经常谈论在生活中
in their lives very often,
遇到的自恋者
but what does that mean to truly have
但对真正的自恋型人格障碍
narcissistic personality disorder?
患者意味着什么呢?
Narcissistic personality disorder sufferers
自恋型人格障碍患者
have an inflated ego.
自我膨胀
They feel they are somehow special and unique.
他们觉得自己很特别 独一无二
They also tend to
他们也倾向于
be preoccupied by fantasies of power,
沉迷于权力的幻想
and have a powerful sense of entitlement.
并有强烈的权力意识
They are devastated by normal human limitations,
他们被正常的人类限制摧毁
and their self-worth can rapidly fall,
如果他们遇到这些限制
if they encounter these limitations.
他们的自我价值会迅速下降
There are a few characters with
电影中鲜有角色
a diagnosis of this in film.
被诊出此症
But there are many characters you could fit the bill
但你能把很多角色对号入座
For example,
比如
Miranda Priestly in The Devil Wears Prada,
《穿普拉达的女魔头》中的米兰达·普里斯特利
or all the snow and forgetting Sarah Marshall
或者《白雪公主》中的莎拉·马歇尔
have been suggested by some to have NPD.
被一些人建议去做NPD测试
You also find articles on NPD,
你也可以找到一些关于NPD的文章
often portraying na nar narscissist as abusers.
经常把自恋者描述成虐待狂
It’s important to remember not all people
重要的是要记住 并不是
with NPD are abusive,
所有的NPD患者都是虐待狂
and not all abusers have NPD.
也不是所有的虐待狂都得了NPD
Antisocial personality disorder.
反社会人格障碍
This is another personality disorder
这是人们经常听说的
people have often heard about.
另一种人格障碍
You might have heard it by the names
你可能听过它的名字
psychopathy and sociopathy.
精神变态和社会变态
The main issue in antisocial personality disorder
反社会人格障碍的主要问题
is an utter lack of empathy.
是完全缺乏同理心
They tend to disregard others feelings
他们往往不顾他人的感受
and can often engage in criminality.
经常犯罪
They also tend to be impulsive
他们也容易冲动
and typically don’t feel remorse for their actions.
通常不会对自己的行为感到后悔
As previously mentioned,
如前所述
serial killers, such as John Casey
连环杀手 例如约翰·凯西
or fictional killers such as Patrick Bateman,
或虚构的杀手 比如帕特里克·贝特曼
are examples of people with
都是反社会
antisocial personality disorder.
人格障碍患者的例子
However,
然而
not all people with antisocial personality disorder,
并非所有患有反社会人格障碍的人
go on to become killers or even break the law.
都会成为杀手 甚至违法
Clusters C is considered the anxious cluster.
集群C被认为是焦虑集群
And consists of
包括
avoidant personality disorder,
逃避型人格障碍
dependent personality disorder,
依赖型人格障碍
and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
和强迫型人格障碍
People in this cluster often behave
这个群体中的人经常
in very anxious ways,
表现得非常焦虑
impacting on their lives greatly.
对他们的生活产生了很大的影响
Avoidant personality disorder.
逃避型人格障碍
Do you know someone who seemed
你认识一个似乎
to completely avoid others?
完全回避别人的人?
Or who sensitive to criticism
或者谁对批评很敏感
and feels rejected often?
经常感到被拒绝?
These are some of the key characteristics
这些是逃避型人格障碍的
of avoidant personality disorder.
一些关键特征
The individual may be extremely sensitive to criticism
这个人可能对批评非常敏感
and have chronic fear of rejection.
长期害怕被拒绝
Due to this, they tend to completely
因此 他们倾向于完全
avoid social situations and social relationships.
避免社交场合和社会关系
Like with schizoid personality disorder,
就像分裂型人格障碍一样
they often come across as a loner.
他们经常给人留下孤独的印象
Unlike schizoid personality disorder,
不像分裂型人格障碍
they have no desire to make friends.
他们没有交朋友的欲望
They have a chronically low self-esteem
他们长期自卑
and don’t feel good enough.
自我感觉不够好
They may be a student in your class
他们可能是你班上的一个学生
who never seems to contribute,
似乎从来没有任何贡献
or a co-worker who takes
或者是一个把
every bit of criticism to heart.
每一点批评都放在心上的同事
Dependent personality disorder.
依赖型人格障碍
Do you know someone
你认识一个
who seems to depend on others?
似乎很依赖别人的人吗?
Who needs a lot of attention and care from people?
他们需要人们的关注和关心?
As the name suggests,
顾名思义
people with dependent personality disorder
有依赖型人格障碍的人
have a strong need to be taken care of.
有强烈的被照顾的需求
They often come across as very clingy,
他们经常给人留下粘人的印象
and they intensely fear losing their relationships
他们非常害怕失去生活中
in their lives.
的人际关系
You might have heard people say they have
你可能听过人们说
co-dependent relationships.
他们有相互依赖的关系
This very well could fall under
这很可能是属于
dependent personality disorder.
依赖型人格障碍
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
强迫型人格障碍
We all know a perfectionist
我们都知道一个完美
who likes to get their own way.
主义者喜欢随心所欲
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder is like this,
强迫型人格障碍就是这样
but to the extreme.
但有些极端
Those with obsessive compulsive personality disorder
那些患有强迫症的人
are obsessed with order control,
痴迷于秩序控制
and getting things done right.
把事情做好
They are extreme perfectionist
他们是极端的完美主义者
and struggle to work with others,
很难与他人合作
as they think everything should be done their way.
因为他们认为每件事情都应该按照他们的方式来做
They also tend to be tight with money,
他们也倾向于紧缩资金
worrying about future events.
担心未来的事件
No, this is different to obsessive-compulsive disorder
不 这和强迫症不同
which is an anxiety disorder.
强迫症是一种焦虑症
Which personality disorder
你觉得哪种
did you find the most interesting?
人格障碍最有趣?
Would you like to know more about
你想知道更多关于
any of the disorders we discussed today?
我们今天讨论的疾病吗?
Feel free to like and share this video,
欢迎分享这个视频
and subscribe to our channel for more content.
并订阅我们的频道获取更多的内容

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视频概述

本视频介绍了三个大类的人格障碍集群,其中每个分类下又有不同的人格障碍细分。

听录译者

咬人的小脑斧

翻译译者

咬人的小脑斧

审核员

审核员#LY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdNUL8yarR0

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