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10个比你想象的更古老的现代物品 – 译学馆
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10个比你想象的更古老的现代物品

10 Modern Items That Are Way Older Than You Think

这十件现代物品远比你想象的更加古老
10 modern items that are way older than you think.
第十 机器人
No.10 ROBOTS
大多数人认为机器人是最近才出现的东西
Most of us will call robots a product of very recent times.
其实“机器人”一词在不到一百年前的1921年才出现
In fact the word “robots” itself was only coined less than 100 years ago in 1921.
它最早出现于捷克斯洛伐克的戏剧作品——
It comes when Czechoslovakian word for work
卡雷尔·卡佩克的《罗莎的全能机器人》中
used in the play “Rossum’s Universal Robots” by Karel Capek
用以描述制造工业的奴隶军
to describe an army of manufacture industrial slaves.
据国际机器人联合会称
According to the International Federation of Robotics,
2019年全世界将有260万工业机器人在运转
2.6 million industrial robots would be in operation worldwide in 2019.
怪异的是 最早的机器人在公元前五世纪(400到300年间)
Bizarrely though, they have their roots and creation
就已出现 有着约2400年的发源创造史
for almost 2400 years ago, between 400 and 300 in 5th B.C.
它被称为“鸽子” 是个能自我驱动的飞行设备
Known as the pigeon, the first robot was a self-propelled flying device
由被誉为机械工业之父的古希腊
developed by ancient Greek philosopher, mathematician and astronomer – Archytas,
哲学家 数学家和天文学家阿契塔斯发明
who is consequently credited as being the founder of mechanical science.
它作为第一个机器人为人所知
It is known as the first robot
是因为它能在无人类干预之下自主飞行
because it was able to fly by self with no human interference.
他的机器人是一只木制的鸟
His robot was a wooden bird
能拍打翅膀飞两百米高
capable of flapping its wings and flying up to 200 meters.
它用压缩空气和内部蒸汽机驱动
It was powered by compressed air or internal steam engine
或许还用了滑轮和平衡物辅助飞行
and probably used a pulley and counterweight to help it fly.
第九 模拟计算机
No.9 ANALOG COMPUTER
杜梅里克是第一台被广泛认可的模拟计算机
The first analog computer is largely believed to be the Dumaresq.
它是个机械计算设备
It was a mechanical calculating device
由英国皇家海军的约翰·杜梅里克中尉发明
invented around 1902 by Lieutenant John Dumaresq of the Royal Navy,
能显示出相关联的两艘船的行踪
which showed the whereabouts of two ships in relation to each other
和各自的去向
and where each of them is moving.
但实际上 第一台真正的模拟计算机
But in fact, the very first analog computer
大约2000年前就出现了
came around 2000 years before,
它于1900年被发现
known as the Antikythera mechanism.
被称为安提基特拉装置
Discovered in 1900,
研究表明这是一个模拟计算机
researches found that it is an analog computer,
它使用了机械化的计算系统
because it used a mechanical computer-like system
包含至少30种不同的传动装置
comprised of at least 30 different types of gears
能够计算太阳系的运行周期
which is able to calculate the cycles of the solar system.
它有个刻度盘指示希腊每年举办的赛事
It has a dial which indicates which of the panhellenic games would’ve taken place each year,
包括四年一次的奥林匹克运动会
within Olympics happening every 4 years.
机械研究前沿的大学教授甚至声称
University professor who led the study on the mechanism
它比蒙娜丽莎更有价值
even said that it was more valuable than the Mona Lisa.
第八 安全套
No.8 CONDOMS
全世界每年售出60到90亿个安全套
Around the world between 6 to 9 billion condoms are sold each year.
我们熟悉的一次性乳胶安全套约诞生于1912年
While single-use latex condom that we may be familiar with came about in 1912,
这个避孕神器的历史却可以追溯到很久以前
the history of this contraceptive device goes way back.
远至公元前1500年
In fact, as far back as 1500 B.C.
法国有两个洞穴叫做“坎布里亚之穴”
2 caves in France known as the ‘Grotto de Cambria’
科学家声称
are known to the paintings on the walls
洞穴的壁画上展示了安全套的雏形
the scientists claim showed condoms.
时间再往前推一点 到公元前3000年
Fast forward a few more years, this time to 3000 B.C,
克里特岛的米诺斯王把巨蛇和蝎子藏进精液里
king Minos of Crete sorted his serpents and scorpions in his semen,
用据说是山羊的膀胱做的安全套
used the condom believed to have been made of goat’s bladder
保护他的妻子免受其害
to protect his wife from the creatures.
与此同时 另一边的地中海
Meanwhile on the other side of the Mediterranean sea,
埃及人用亚麻鞘做安全套
Egyptians used linen sheath as protection
甚至还涂上彩色代表阶级地位
which were even colored to represent class status.
罗马人则用松脂 乳香 动物的肠子和膀胱
And Romans were also known to use turpentine, olibanum, animal intestine and bladders,
甚至还用死去的战士的肌肉做防护
disturbingly also use the muscles of the slayed combatants as protection.
第七 眼线膏
No.7 EYELINER
在1922年英国人霍华德·卡特和豪尔赫·赫本
Eyeliners became popular in 1922
关于图坦卡蒙陵墓的考古发现后
after archaeological discovery by Englishman Howard Carter and Jorge Hepburn
眼线膏便开始流行起来
of the tome of Tutankhamun.
西古埃及眼线膏这项发现在世界范围内的广泛流传
World wide coverage of this discovery introduced the west ancient Egyptian eyeliner,
并被很快接纳
where was quickly accepted.
可见古埃及东部
This is because eastern ancient Egypt
并非眼线膏真正的发源地
was the origins of eyeliner really lie.
12000多年前
Over 12000 years ago,
眼线膏最先出现在古埃及和美索不达米亚
eyeliner first appeared in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia,
那里上流社会的男人和女人
where both men and women of high status
不仅用眼线膏来修饰眼睛
used eyeliner to not only define their eyes,
还用来预防皱纹
but also to protect them from wrinkles
皱纹可因暴露在沙漠 大风 日光和高温下而致
that can be caused by exposure to desert, wind, sun and heat.
埃及眼线膏是用铅做的
Egyptian eyeliner was made of lead,
为什么他们愿意用对健康有不利影响的铅制眼线膏呢
and why they wanted to wear the adverse heath effect of using lead by eyeliner,
比如对大脑的损害
such as brain damage?
埃及人相信铅能防治眼睛疾病
The Egyptians believed that the substance protected against eye diseases.
有趣的是 据MAG科学称
And interestingly enough according to science MAG,
几年前发布的一项研究表明
research which came to light just a few years ago
包含铅的物质确实能抵抗有害细菌
shows the thing including lead does indeed help fight bad bacteria.
第六 电话
No.6 THE TELEPHONE
亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔因于1933年
While Alexander Graham Bell receives much of his historical credit
发明电话而获得历史性的赞誉
for inventing the telephone in 1933
他是第一个取得该项专利的人
after having been rewarded the first successful patent,
但关于谁是电话的发明者仍有争议
there is still a bit bite over the inventor of the telephone.
另一些被记录的电话潜在发明者有安东尼奥·梅乌奇
Other potential inventors are noted as Antonio Meucci,
伊丽莎·格雷和埃里克森
Elisha Gray and Ericsson.
但其实第一个尝试制造电话的计划
But in fact the first plan for the telephone
开始于1200多年前的秘鲁
originated in Peru over 1200 years ago,
它在秘鲁恰钦的废墟里被发现
found in the ruins of Chachin in Peru,
这是最原始的通讯工具
was an initiative communication object
被视为电话的早期模型
that is credited as the early example of telephone
至今已有1200至1400年的历史
apparently being between 1200 and 1400 years old.
这个古老的设备由两个锥形筒和一条长绳组成
This ancient device is composed of 2 cone tops tied with a length of cord.
每个锥状体约9cm长 上面涂有树脂
The cones each around 9cm long are coated in resin
作为信号传送器和声音接收器
and act as transmitters and receivers of sound.
每个锥形信号传送器底部覆有硬膜
Around each transmitter of the cone basis is stretched hard membrane,
连接两头的是一根23米长的棉麻线
and the 23 meters line connecting the 2 ends is made of cotton twine.
第五 高跟鞋
No.5 HIGH HEELS
玛丽莲·梦露说“我不知道是谁发明了高跟鞋”
Marilyn Monroe said “I don’t know who invented the high heel,”
“但女人欠他良多”
“but women owe him a lot.”
20世纪50年代 好莱坞明星如奥黛丽·赫本
Heels of designers such as Christian Dior, Roger Vivier,
穿着高跟鞋出没于荧屏
shot to popularity in 1950s
高跟鞋的设计师如克里斯汀·迪奥 罗杰·维维耶
as the result of Hollywood sirens, such as Audrey Hepburn,
也因此一举成名
donning them both on and off screen.
但或许玛丽莲·梦露想要感谢的设计师
Well maybe these designers that Marilyn Maye wanted to thank,
是这些应该被感激的仪态万方的埃及人
it’s the gainly Egyptians to whom the gratitude should be payed.
其实高跟鞋发源于公元前约3500年的古埃及
High heels were actually owe the region acient Egypt around 3500 B.C,
那儿无论男女都穿高跟鞋
where they were worn by both men and women
以区分穿高跟鞋的上等人和赤脚的下等人
to distinguish high-class people from the low-class who wore the barefoot.
鞋跟越高 社会地位越高
The higher the heel, the higher the position.
与此同时 在卖淫合法的古罗马
Meanwhile in acient Rome where prostitution was legal,
高跟鞋被作为一种辨认
highheels were used as a way of identifying
向顾客提供服务的妓女的方式
those were in the trade to their clients.
第四 牙刷和牙膏
No.4 TOOTHBRUSHES & TOOTHPASTES
猪鬃做的尼龙的发明
The invention of nylon for bristles
促进了1938年真正现代意义上的牙刷的发展
triggled the development of the truely modern toothbrush in 1938,
紧接着在1939年出现了第一个电动牙刷
follow closely by the first electric toothbrush in 1939.
有趣的是
But interesting enough,
牙刷用具可以追溯到公元前约3000年
toothbrush tools date back to around 3000 B.C
那时埃及人用磨损的树枝做刷牙工具
when the Egyptians made toothbrush tool by frayed end of twig.
同样 牙膏也是埃及人发明的
Similarly, toothpaste was invented by the Egyptians
甚至比牙刷的出现还要早
before toothbrushes were even invented.
现代牙膏从19世纪开始发展
The development of toothpaste in modern times started in the 1800s,
最早的成分包含盐和明矾 到50年代加进了木炭
early versions contain salt and alum, in 1850s charcoal included.
但埃及人在公元前约3000年就已开始用牙膏清洁牙齿
But the Egyptians had already started to use a paste to clean their teeth
出于跟我们今天一样的原因
around 3000 B.C for the same reasons we do.
为了清洁牙齿和牙龈 美白牙齿 清新口气
Keeping teeth and gums clean, whitening teeth, and freshening breath.
但古时牙膏的成分跟我们今天的大有不同
But the ingredients in ancient toothpastes were very different from us today.
古时用牛蹄灰粉末
Ingredients used included powder of ox hoof ashes
烧成灰的鸡蛋壳和浮石混合做材料
and burned egg shells combined with pumice.
第三 闹钟
No.3 ALARM CLOCK
1787年利瓦伊·哈钦斯发明了第一个机械闹钟
In 1787 Levi Hutchins invented the first mechanical alarm clock,
但它只能在凌晨四点响起
but it would only ring at 4 in the morning.
嗷!
OUCH!
1847年 安东尼·列迪尓发明了第一个
Then in 1847, Antoine Redier invented the first modern alarm clock
能设置响铃时间的现代闹钟
that allows the time to be set.
但早上闹钟响起的时候
But when the alarm goes off in the morning
不要诅咒他们 该诅咒的是柏拉图
don’t curse this two, curse Plato,
因为他才是创造了第一个闹钟的人
as he is credited with creating the very first functional alarm clock.
古埃及科学家克特西比乌斯生于公元前295年
Ancient Egyptian scientist Ctesibius, born in 295 B.C,
创造了一个水钟
created a water clock
它能在特定时间把水滴在一个金属盘子里
which drops balls onto a metal plate at a specified time,
以发出声音 但效果不太好
thus creating a sound, but it didn’t work very well.
柏拉图根据克特西比乌斯的水钟
Plato constructed his own version of alarm clock
创造了自己的闹钟
based on Ctesibius’s water clock
他在罐装器皿里加了一根管子
and added a tube to the filling vessel,
做成吸管
forming a siphon.
水要溢出的时候
When the water started spilling over,
就会被吸到另一个器皿里
it was siphoned off into another vessel.
它几乎全是封闭的 只有一些小口
It was mostly enclosed but had small openings
水满的时候会像牲畜一样发出呼哨声
making a whistle like a cattle when it’s filled up.
第二 电池
No.2 BATTERIES
现在普遍认为第一块电池是在1800年
It’s widely believed the first battery was invented
由意大利物理学家亚历山大·伏特发明的
by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800.
他把铜和锌做的磁盘
He stacked discs of copper and zinc
用泡过盐水的布隔开
separated by cloth soaked in salt water
来制造电流
to create an electrical flow.
然而在1938年 伊拉克国家博物馆的馆长威廉·康尼格
However in 1938, Wilhelm Konig, the director of national museum of Iraq,
在馆藏里发现了一个可追溯到大约公元前250年的装置
found a device in the museum collections dating back to around 250 B.C.
它被称为巴格达电池
It’s called Baghdad battery,
在古时 人们将金镀到银制品上
and it was used in ancient times for electroplating gold onto silver objects.
现在科学的观点是
Now for the science debate,
这个装置是一个高6英寸的黏土壶
the device was a 6-inch-high pot of clay
包含一个铜片做成的圆筒
containing a cylinder of sheet copper,
铜片的边缘用铅锡合金密封
the edge of the copper cylinder was sealed with lead-tin alloy.
圆筒的底部覆有铜盘
The bottom of the cylinder was capped with a copper disk,
铜柱中心悬浮着一根铁棒
and an iron rod was suspended into the center of the copper cylinder.
有人建议可以用柠檬汁 葡萄汁或者醋
It is suggested that the lemon juice, grape juice or vinegar
作为电解质以形成电流
was used as an electrolyte to generate an electric current.
第一 隐形眼镜
No.1 CONTACT LENSES
不管你信不信 隐形眼镜有着难以置信的一段历史
Contact lenses have a fascinating history that you believe it or not
可追溯到500年前
goes back 500 years.
菲克和穆勒在1887年发明了第一副隐形眼镜
It was in 1887 when Fick and Muller developed the first contact lens.
它由玻璃制成 刚好能覆盖整个眼睛
It was manufactured from glass and fitted to cover the entire eye.
然而 出土的草图表明有人
However sketches that is discovered suggested someone else
已经发现人类可通过让角膜直接接触
have already found out that the human eye could be altered
水或透镜组而改变视力
by placing the cornea directly in contact with water or contact lenses.
它在1509年由李奥纳多·达·芬奇制成
It was made by Leonardo da Vinci in 1509
当然那时他还没有忙着创作《蒙娜丽莎》
in the time when he wasn’t busy painting the Mona Lisa of course.
在《眼睛的法典——D手册》一书中
In “Codex of the eye, Manual D”,
达芬奇介绍了通过把整个头浸没在水里
Da Vinci describes the way of manipulating the cornea power
或在眼前戴上装满水的玻璃半球体
by either submerging the entire head in a bowl of water
来改变角膜视力的方法
or wearing a water-filled glass hemisphere over the eye.
达芬奇用扇形窗的一边来做隐形眼镜
Da Vinci made a contact lens with a fanlight one side
这样水就能倒进去了
so the water could be poured into it.
但不幸的是 这个意大利人的发明
But unfortunately for this Italian,
立马被无视了 因为欠缺实用性
this was immediately disregarded due to practicality.
但这是一个不错的尝试 对不对?
Not a bad first attempt though, right?
以上十个远比你想的要古老的现代物品
So that was the 10 modern items that are way older than you think,
哪一个最让你觉得惊讶?
which one surprised you the most?
请在下面的评论里告诉我们吧
Let us know in the comments below
别忘记点击下面的订阅按钮哦
and don’t forget to like and subscribe while you’re down there.
同时
And in the meantime,
点击这里可以回顾往期视频
check out this next old time item’s video playing on screen,
马上去看看吧!
right now!

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