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地球上曾经存在的十种恐怖生物 – 译学馆
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地球上曾经存在的十种恐怖生物

10 Extinct Creatures That Could Have Ruined The World

闪光点
BRIGHT SIDE
[音乐]
[Music]
嘿 准备好给身体降降温了吗?
Hey, ready for some hypothermia?
以下是10种会让你倒吸一口凉气的
Here are 10 extinct creatures
已经灭绝的物种
that’ll make your blood run cold.
看 低体温症 哈哈
See, hypothermia, haha.
你觉得恐龙吓人吗?
Now, do you think the dinosaurs were kind of scary?
嗯 再想想
Hmm, think again!
在恐龙那个时代 进化出来的生物都很可怕
In its time, evolution created creatures so terrifying.
和那些生物相比 恐龙简直是个可爱的婴儿
They made dinosaurs look like cute little babies.
想知道哪一些生物如果活在今天
So, do you wanna find out which creatures would
可能会完全毁灭我们生活的世界吗
have completely destroyed our world if they were alive today?
听起来是不是很有趣?
Hey, sounds like fun, right?
那么咱们言归正传吧
Then, let’s get started.
后面还有额外篇
Hey, as a bonus,
我们会向你们介绍一个真正的恐怖
we might even show you something really gruesome–
世上已知的一种会识字的恐龙的存在
the worlds only known literate dinosaur.
但在我们讲这些恐怖的内容前
But, before we give you all the scary details,
大家一定要订阅我们的频道
make sure you subscribe our channel,
并打开更新提醒
and turn on this little notification bell.
这样你随时就能知道闪光点更新了
Now you’ll always be on time for every BRIGHT SIDE hang out.
第十 滑齿龙
Counting down from No.10 Liopleurodon.
这期视频的内容描述虽然都很浮夸
Yeah, this video is full of arking ten-dollar words,
但我会尽量讲好
but I’ll try to do my best.
滑齿龙是一种巨型海生爬行动物
Liopleurodon was a giant marine reptile
是短颈型蛇颈龙的亲戚
from the family of short-neck plesiosaurus.
这种生物出现在侏罗纪中期的卡洛维阶
This species lived during the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic Period.
喂 啥是侏罗纪? 我怎么知道?
Hey, Jurassic means? How should I know?
滑齿龙的常规体型
Now, the typical size of a Liopleurodon
在16到23英尺之间
varied from 16 to 23 feet,
但是最大的也能达到33英尺
but the largest reached over 33 feet.
基于它们自身的体型和重量
Considering their length and weight,
滑齿龙属于食肉动物
Liopleurodons were predators,
会吃鱼 乌贼以及小型海生哺乳动物
eating fish, squid and smaller marine mammals.
而且它们的朝天鼻
Moreover, their nostrils faced forward
是滑齿龙灵敏嗅觉的象征
which was a sign of their excellent sense of smell.
也让滑齿龙成为当时最强的食肉动物之一
This also made them one of the best predators of their time.
滑齿龙的强大不单是依靠灵敏的嗅觉
And that’s still not the only thing that made them powerful.
它们长而平的脚蹼还可以使它们游动的极快
Their long and flat flippers allow them to swim extremely quickly.
因此一旦被滑齿龙盯上就难逃厄运
So no one could hide when a Liopleurodon decided to hunt.
不幸的是 滑齿龙身上仍有许多未解的谜团
Unfortunately, there are still a lot of unanswered questions about Liopleurodons.
但是有一样可以肯定的是
But one thing is for sure,
你不会想在一场愉快的海洋之旅中见到滑齿龙
you wouldn’t want to meet them during an exciting trip to the ocean.
第九 远古蜈蚣虫
No.9 Arthropleura.
该是千足虫出场的时候了
Time for a millipede to join our list.
我们要说的是灭绝的那种千足虫 谢谢
And it’s going to be the extinct, thank you.
远古蜈蚣虫
Arthropleura.
这种千足虫大约在3.15亿年前
This millipede lived in a territories of
生活在现今北美的东北地域
current north-eastern North America and Scotland
以及苏格兰地域
about 315 million years ago.
这种生物身长在1到7英尺之间
This species range from almost one to seven feet in lengths.
并且身宽大于2英尺
and more around two feet in width.
远古蜈蚣虫的身体由
Arthropleura’s body was apparently
大约30个体节构成
composed of around 30 jointed segments
并且在身体两侧和中间都有硬壳覆盖着
covered by 2 side plates and one center plate.
与这次盘点的其他生物不同
Unlike pretty much all the other creatures on our list,
远古蜈蚣虫不是食肉动物
Arthropleuras weren’t predators.
原因很简单 因为这些生物并没有残暴的口齿
It’s simply because these creatures didn’t have strong mouth parts,
所以它们是纯粹的植食性动物
so they were entirely plant eaters.
但是尽管远古蜈蚣虫
But even though Arthropleuras
不会给我们造成什么严重威胁
wouldn’t pose any serious danger to us,
但是你试想下
just imagine looking down
当你感觉到有东西拂过你的腿
as you felt something brush against your leg
然后低头一看
and seeing this.
史上最大声的尖叫记录就会
The record for the loudest scream of all time
由你诞生
would certainly be yours.
幸运的是 当长期潮湿的气候开始逐渐变得干燥
Luckily, when the usual moist climate started to dry out,
那时也是远古蜈蚣虫开始灭亡的时候
it was time for the Arthropleuras to go.
第八 古巨蜥
No.8 Megalania.
等等 是不是和特朗普媳妇有些像 不是 好吧
Wait a minute! Is that like first ladies? No? Okay.
古巨蜥 也被称作古代巨型的流浪者
Megalania, often called Megalania Prisca,
是你能想象到的最大巨蜥
is the biggest monitor lizard you can possibly imagine.
没错 古巨蜥无疑是存在过的最大的陆地蜥蜴
Yup. It’s easily the largest terestrial lizard that ever existed.
古巨蜥年代最近的化石
The youngest of its fossils
要追溯到约5万年前
dates back to approximately 50,000 years ago.
如果你正好是澳大利亚人
And if you’re from Australia,
那你可能对于古巨蜥在不幸灭绝前
then you probably won’t be surprised to know
曾生活在澳大利亚这事不会惊奇
that Megalanias live there before their unfortunate extinction.
但是古巨蜥灭绝真的是很不幸的事吗?
But, was that really that unfortunate? Emm?
对我们来说不是
Not for us.
最大的古巨蜥长度达到23英尺
The length of the largest Megalanias reached around 23 feet with
最大体重在1320到1370磅之间
a maximum weight of 1,320 to 1,370 pounds.
它们还是非常活跃的猎人
They were unbelievably active hunters as well.
古巨蜥化石的旁边经常发现有袋鼠
And Megalania fossils were often found near kangaroos,
鹿或是其他大型的类似动物的化石
deers and other large animals of this kind.
然而存在一种可以推翻古巨蜥所有事实的假说
However, there’s a little twist to all these Megalania facts
那就是古巨蜥可能仍旧存活于世
and it’s that these creatures may still be with us.
在19到20世纪
In both the 19th and 20th centuries,
有许多关于的人类目击到某种生物的报告
there were numerous reports of people
从描述上听起来
seeing creatures that sounded
非常像古巨蜥仍旧存活的证明
very much like surviving examples of Megalania.
不过除了这些目击报告并没有实际证据证明古巨蜥确实仍然存在
There’s no actual evidence of this theory apart from those stories,
但是谁知道呢
but who knows,
没准这些生物仍在地球上哪个地方溜达着呢
maybe these creatures are still roaming on earth.
第七 邓氏鱼
No.7 Dunkleosteus.
邓氏鱼在大约3.58亿到3.82亿年前的
Dunkleosteus became extint around 358 to 382 million years ago
泥盆纪晚期灭绝
during the late Devonian Period.
然而邓氏鱼不仅仅只有一种
However, there wasn’t just one Dunkleosteus,
事实上有十种邓氏鱼存在过
there were actually 10 species of it,
包括泰雷尔邓氏鱼 丹尼逊邓氏鱼和贵胄邓氏鱼
including D. terrelli, D. denisonii, and D. magnificus.
十美元一只可以买到吗?不能? 好吧
Do we get ten bucks for each of those? No, alright.
泰雷尔邓氏鱼是所有邓氏鱼中最大的
D. terrelli, the largest of them,
将近20英尺长
was almost 20 feet long.
大部分邓氏鱼的化石集中在
Most Dunkleosteus fossils were found
南美 波兰 比利时以及摩洛哥等地
in North America, Poland, Belgium and Morocco.
最大的泰雷尔邓氏鱼
The largest Dunkleosteus trellis
拥有四连杆机构来使下颌扩张
had a four bar linkage mechanism for jaw opening
从而可以让它们的嘴在20毫秒内就完全张开
that allow them to open their jaws completely in just 20 milliseconds.
它们并没有许多牙齿
They really didn’t have that many teeth,
但这并不妨碍它们吃其他海洋生物
but it still didn’t stop them from eating marine animals.
此外 科学家们分析证据得出
Moreover, there’s evidence that allow scientists to conclude
邓氏鱼这一物种
that the Dunkleosteus species
有时也会同类互食
occasionally cannibalized each other as well,
还以为它们不会更凶残了
just when we thought it couldn’t get any more vicious.
你觉得怎么样 邓氏鱼是你目前看到最恐怖的吗?
But what do you think, is Dunkleosteus the scary one yet?
在评论下方留言告诉我们
Tell us about it in the comments below.
现在继续讲视频
Ok, let’s move right along to
第六 莱茵耶克尔鲎
No.6 Jaekelopterus.
莱茵耶克尔鲎是一种你在享受美好潜水体验时
Jaekelopterus was a giant predatory sea scorpian
绝对不想看见的
that you definitely wouldn’t want to see
大型食肉海蝎动物
during your mesmerizing diving experience.
不过如果你看到了
Though if you did,
那个景象绝对会让你很久都无法忘怀
it would certainly be something you wouldn’t forget for a long time.
科学家们分析遗留下来的化石后
Anyway, after analyzing its fossil remains
确定莱茵耶克尔鲎的尺寸将近8.5英尺
scientists confirm that Jaekelopterus reach the size of nearly 8.5 feet
是史上最大的节肢动物
which makes it the larget arthropod ever.
这些海蝎并不像人畜无害的远古蜈蚣虫一样
These sea scorpians weren’t content with underwater urbs
会安于满足海底生活
like the harmless Arthropleuras,
它们更喜欢用它们蓄势待发的武器埋伏鱼类
they prefer to ambush fish with their spring loaded arms
然后用钳子撕碎那些猎物
and sliced them up using their claws.
真是一个极其恐怖的
That’s a true horror movie scene
会发生在泥盆纪早期的电影画面
that happened during the Early Devonian Age.
从描述上看
Well, judging from this decription,
它们应该也会非常享受人肉的
they would very much enjoy human flesh as well.
幸好在验证人肉理论前
Thankfully, the Jaekelopterus species became extinct
莱茵耶克尔鲎就已经灭绝了
way before we were able to test this horrific theory.
第五 帝鳄
No.5 Sarcosuchus.
为什么这个盘点里还没出现鳄鱼的影子?
Now, why are there still no crocodiles on this list?
难道鳄鱼不可怕吗
Were there any scary ones?
好的 现在让我为你介绍帝鳄
Well, let us introduce you to the Sarcosuchus.
是现代鳄鱼
A distant relative of living crocodiles
生活在1.12亿年前的远方亲戚
that live about 112 million years ago.
如果你害怕现代鳄鱼
And if you are scared of today’s crocodiles,
那么帝鳄简直就可以把你吓跑了
this one would make you run even faster.
这些爬行动物有鳄鱼的两倍长
These reptiles were almost twice as long
重1.7万磅 天哪!
and weight up to 17,000 pounds. What a crack!
第一个遗留下来的帝鳄化石
The first Sarcosuchus remains were discovered back
于1946年在撒哈拉沙漠被发现
in 1946 in the Sahara Desert.
古生物学家发现帝鳄的头骨碎片
Paleontologist found fragments of the creatures’ skull,
椎骨 牙齿以及其他部分
vertebrae, teeth and other parts.
随着时间推移 科学家们发现更多
With time, scientists found even more fragments
能帮助他们了解到帝鳄外观的碎片
that help them understand what the Sarcosuchus look like.
根据目前已知的内容 了解到
According to what’s known now, it has somewhat telescoped eyes
帝鳄的眼睛稍微错开 口吻很长
and a long snout
上颚一边有35颗牙齿
with 35 teeth on each side of its upper jaw,
下颚一边则是31颗牙齿
and 31 teeth on each side of its lower one.
你难道不觉得用这种下巴去捕猎一点也不难吗?
It’s not that hard to hunt with this type of jaw, don’t you think?
显然科学家们表示赞同
Apparently, scientists agree,
证据显示帝鳄
suggesting that Sarcosuchus
甚至可能以当时众多的恐龙为食
might have even eaten some abundant dinosaurs.
嗯 现代鳄鱼对我们来说足够了
So we’ll say that modern crocodiles are enough for us.
不用帝鳄了 谢谢
No Sarcosuchus species, please.
第四 丽齿兽
No.4 Gorgonops.
远在恐龙统治史前世界之前
Long before dinosaurs started to rule the prehistoric world,
这个世界被另一种叫丽齿兽的食肉动物统治着
there were other dominant predators out there called Gorgonopses.
它们生活在大约2.6亿年前
They lived around 260 million years ago
在那时震慑着其他小型生物
terrifying all the smaller species of that time.
至于它们的体型
As for their size,
这种生物大概10英尺长 重将近1000磅
this creatues were about 10 ft long and weigh nearly 1,000 pounds.
嗯 听起来都没我们现在看到的生物可怕
Emm, doesn’t sound too scary after everything we’ve already seen today,
但是丽齿兽的能耐不仅于此
but that’s not all.
你可能会好奇为什么丽齿兽
You might wonder exactly why Gorgonopses
能够在当时成为食肉动物霸主
became the main predators of their time,
我的意思是 丽齿兽当时基本上是食物链顶端生物
we mean, they were basically at the top of the food chain.
答案很简单
Easy!
因为它们巨大的犬齿
It was their massive canines
大大突出超过下巴
that protruded almost beyond their lower jaw.
加上支撑它们身体的腿的姿势
Plus their legs supported their body from below
可以使视野延长
as a pose to sprawling to their sights.
这个优势使它们能快速奔跑
This advantage allowed them to reach a faster pace
然后迅速捕捉到它们的猎物
and get to their victims more quickly.
一些学说还指出
Some theories also point out
丽齿兽可能是恒温动物
that Gorgonopses may have been warm-blooded,
这意味着丽齿兽至少会有点毛发
which implies having at least a little bit of fur.
不过这些仍旧是没有任何证据的假说
However, these are still assumptions with no proof whatsoever.
但是我不会和这些丽齿兽争辩的
But I’m not gonna argue with all gordy here.
你想要有毛 就有毛好了 拜托千万别吃我
You want fur, you can have fur. Just don’t eat me. Please.
第三 泰坦蟒
No.3 Titanoboa.
如果你无法接受蛇类
If you can’t stand snakes,
那么泰坦蟒觉得能把你吓得半死
Titanoboa would definitely have scared you to death.
人们认为这种大型蛇曾居住在
It’s believed that this gigantic snake
现在是哥伦比亚东北部的一块区域里
lived in a region that’s now a part of north-eastern Columbia,
并且泰坦蟒的化石可以追溯到
and its fossils date back to
大约5.8到6千万年前
about 58 to 60 million years ago.
泰坦蟒保持着一个可怕的记录
Titanoboa holds this scary record
就是目前发现的最大的蛇
for the largest snake ever discovered,
泰坦蟒全长将近48英尺
with a total length of nearly 48 feet
重大约超2500磅
and weight above about 2,500 pounds.
稍后会向你展示泰坦蟒的透视图
It would then into perspective for you,
基本上是一只大型蟒蛇的4倍重
it’s basically 4 times as heavy as a giant Anaconda.
至于泰坦蟒的捕食习惯
As for its hunting habits,
泰坦蟒或许是最阴险的蛇类
Titanoboa was most probably very snaky,
不知从哪出现然后快速咬住猎物的静脉
coming out of nowhere and quickly biting its prey in the jugular.
好的 我今晚不会睡觉了
Well, I’m not gonna sleep tonight.
小型爬行动物 鸟甚至是鳄鱼都可能成为猎物
Its possible victims could be smaller reptiles, birds and even crocodiles.
所以你和我在遇到这条怪物蛇除了傻站着没有任何机会反击
So you and I would have stood no chance against this monster snake.
但是如果真遇到那么大条蛇实际情况会是怎样呢?
But what would it be like to actually meet a snake that big?
回到2012年
While back in 2012,
在纽约中央车站的游客们
visitors in the grant central terminal in New York city
将有机会看到泰坦蟒
were given the opportunity to envision this encouter,
多亏了这个1:1泰坦蟒模型
thanks to a full-scale model replica of Titanoboa.
制作这个模型是为了一个名叫《泰坦蟒:蛇兽》的节目
It has been created as a promotion for a TV show called
做营销推广
Titanoboa: Monster Snake
一旦看到这个模型
And seeing this model
保证每个人都后背一凉
definitely send chills down pretty much everybody’s spine.
第二 梅根马克尔欧化
No.2 is Megan Markle Europsis.
那是不可能的 开个玩笑 其实是史前蜻蜓
No way, that’s a lie. It’s just Meganeuropsis.
但是我唬住你了有没有?
Hahah but I got you, didn’t I?
大部分昆虫都挺恶心的
Most insects are pretty gross,
但是它们至少不大对吧?
but at least they are small, right?
不过不包括二叠纪时代
Well, not during the Permian Period.
在那时
At that time,
这种大型的史前蜻蜓物种
the Meganeuropsis species, gigantic dragonflies
是一切生物的主宰
were the kings and queens of everything.
它们现在仍是史上最大的昆虫
They still continue to be the biggest insect of all time,
翅翼就有13英寸长
with a wing length of 13 inches
身长将近17英寸
and a body length of almost 17 inches.
第一块史前蜻蜓的化石
Now the very first fossils of Meganeuropsis
于1880年在法国被发现
were actually discovered in France back in 1880.
我们现在对这一物种了解更多了
Now we know way more about this species.
比如
For example,
它们的捕食方法和现代蜻蜓非常相像
their hunting methods were very similar to the dragonflies of today.
唯一的区别就是
The only difference
史前蜻蜓由于自身体型
is that Meganeuropsis was able to
能够吃大型的有机体
eat even larger organisms because of their size.
它们用它们硕大的眼睛探寻猎物
They detected their victims with their large eyes
然后再用脊柱上的腿去抓住猎物
and use the spine on their legs to get a hold of them.
然而 随着时间推移
However, with time,
大气层的情况开始变化
atmosphere conditions began to change
而可能这就是
which might have been the main reason
梅根马克尔欧化的主要原因
for the extinction of Megan Markle Europsis.
啊 对不起 但话说回来
Oops, sorry. But after all,
变化是为了变得更好
whatever happens happens for the best.
如果你知道史前蜻蜓在你家外面溜达
It would have been way harder to convince yourself
肯定很难把你
to leave your house
从你家叫出来 对吧?
if you knew there were giant dragonflies flying outside, right?
第一 旋齿鲨
No.1 Helicoprion.
鲨鱼已经很吓人了
Sharks are unbelievably scary,
但是看到旋齿鲨之后
but after seeing the Helicoprion,
水族馆的鲨鱼简直就像小可爱
the shark from jars seems like a cutie.
这种不寻常的类鲨鱼
This unusual shark-like fish
在大约2.9亿年前
was around 290 million years ago
生活在北美 东欧 亚洲
living in North America, Eastern Europe, Asia
以及毫不意外的澳大利亚地区
and no wonder Australia’s waters.
可怜的澳大利亚 喘口气的时间都没有
Wow! Poor Australia just can’t catch a break here.
旋齿鲨最显著的特征就是它环形的下巴
The most distinctive feature of Helicoprion was a circular jaw.
想象下一个有圆下巴的东西朝你游来
Now just imagine something like this coming toward you.
天哪 就算你存活下来
Man… you wouldn’t have been possible to return to the water ever again,
你可能再也不会想回到水里了
even if you survive the experience.
显然这个渗人的下巴作用和电锯是差不多的
Apparently this creepy jaw operated like a buzz saw,
怪叫着冲向猎物并将其撕碎
moaning into its prey and carving it up.
然而 情况有了转折
However, here’s a plot twist:
大多数科学家认为旋齿鲨并不是鲨鱼
most scientists believe that Helicoprion wasn’t a shark.
相反 他们很确信
Instead, they are sure,
旋齿鲨和一种
it was closely related to the Chimeras,
名为银鲛的深海鱼关系更近
a type of deep seafish.
好吧 不是鲨鱼
Well, sharks are not.
旋齿鲨被证实异常的顽强
Helicoprion is proved to be incredibly strong,
因为它们逃过了二叠纪大灭绝事件
since they survived the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event
该事件让90%的海洋生物
that killed 90 percent of the marine animals
以及约70%的陆地生物灭绝了
and around 70 percent of the terrestrial ones.
但即便如此 它们也就在灭亡前
But it only bought them a few million years
多活了几百万年而已
before their own distinction.
生物进化再一次拯救了我们
And that’s how evolution save us all once again.
现在是福利篇
And now, here’s a bonus.
有一种恐龙极其可怕
A dinosaur that was really really really scary–
那就是第一头识字恐龙
the first literate dinosaur.
没错 一头真的能看懂字的恐龙
Yes, a dinosaur that could actually read.
那头恐龙被叫做词典 嗯名副其实
It was called the Thesaurus, that’s right.
词典很容易就能被发现
The thesaurus was easy to spot,
因为它总是拿着一本书或是杂志在看
always carring a book or magazine to read.
霸王龙最终沦落到这种地步了吗
It’s ultimate downfall?
总是在找同一个词的不同表达
Always looking for alternative words which meant the same thing.
一个霸王龙里以思想为食的外星恐龙
A T-rex alien, some food for thought.
哪一种恐怖的动物吓到你了呢?
So, which one of these horrific creatures scared you the most?
请在评论区留言告诉我们
Tell us in the common section below.
如果你觉得这个视频有趣
If you found this video interesting,
请点赞并分享给你的亲人好友吧
hit the like button and share it with your friends and family.
如果你想看更多类似的科普视频
If you wanna see more informative video like this one,
可以点击关注 一起加入闪光点吧
could subscribe and join us on the Bright Side of life.
下次见
Until next time.

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译制信息
视频概述

泰坦蟒,旋齿鲨,史前蜻蜓…你觉得哪种生物最恐怖呢

听录译者

赵大诗

翻译译者

楼舜

审核员

审核员_JO

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNBTGhzKOo0

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