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外星人存在的10个解释 – 译学馆
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外星人存在的10个解释

10 Credible Explanations Why Aliens Exist

同学们早上好 请带上(预防电波干扰的)锡箔帽
Good morning class, time to put on your tinfoil hats!
我们在宇宙中是否孤独呢?
The question of whether or not we are alone in the universe
这个问题人类已经思索了数百年
is something mankind haswondered for hundreds of years.
地球之外有生命吗
Is there life outside of Earth,
外星生命为什么可能存在?
and what would even make that possible?
接下来的理论将为你解释
Well, the following theories explain
为什么外星人极有可能存在
why aliens are most likely out there.
关于外星人的存在问题
Here are 10 credible explanations
有10个可信的解释
why aliens likely exist.
10 星球数量之繁多
Number 10 is the number of planets.
如果我们将生命看作一种
If we think of life as a phenomenon
需要在一系列特定环境条件下才能出现的现象
which requires a specific set of environmental factors to occur,
那么我们就能从这里入手
then we can start to work out the probability
探讨外星人存在的可能性了
of alien life in the universe.
温度 物质元素 化学成分 稳定性
Temperature, material elements,chemistry, and stability,
这些都在人类存在中扮演着重要的角色
all of these things play their part.
但是我们知道
But the biggest number one factor
生命存在所必需的首要因素是
necessary for life as we know it
得有一个天体 比如说一颗行星
is to have a celestial body, like a planet.
因为天体是生命进化的完美环境
You know, the perfect neighborhood for life to evolve.
以前 我们并不很确信
Previously, we were not exactly sure
那些围绕着其它星星的行星
that planets around other stars,
也就是外星行星 真的存在
known as exoplanets, actually existed.
但是 随着开普勒卫星项目的推进
But, with the developmentof the Kepler satellite,
它能探测到当行星经过时
which can detect minuscule changes
那些遥远的星球的光芒里
in a distant star’s light
发生的一些细小的变化
when planets pass in front of it,
目前 天文学家已探测的恒星接近4000颗
astronomers have detectednearly 4000 planets so far.
换句话说 这些星球数量之繁多
So, in other words, planetsare probably abundant,
足以有可能在其中许多星球
and that means that there are plenty of places
能让外星生命在此安家落户
for extraterrestrial life to call home.
所以我就在想
You know, now that I think about it,
外星世界那么完美无极限
an alien world would probably be perfect.
为什么外星人还要来地球接受汽车尾气的熏陶呢?
Why would they wanna come here with all the farting cows?
问得好 百度一下吧
It’s a thing, Google it.
9 宇宙之沧桑
Number nine is the age of the universe.
我要普及一个常识
In case you didn’t know, the universe is about
宇宙大概有138亿岁了
13.8 billion years old.
而我们的地球大概45亿岁
Our planet Earth has been around for about 4.5 billion years of that,
生命最古老的证据可以追溯到39亿年前
with the oldest evidence of life being 3.9 billion years old.
直到7百万年前
It wasn’t until about 7 million years ago
最早的类人动物才开始进化
that the first hominoids evolved,
他们最终进化成我们现在的样子 也就是智人
and then finally, you get us, the homo sapien,
这才是几十万年前的事儿
just a few hundred thousand years ago.
但有记录的人类历史比这个时间还要短
But even within that time, recorded history
才大约一万年
is only about 10,000 years old,
可能是因为一万年前
probably because we didn’t develop writing
人还不会书写吧
until about that time.
而大家都知道
Well, you know,
未来可能有无数的浩劫来重置人类的文明
that or there were numerous cataclysmic events that kept resetting our civilization.
妈呀! 不!
Mama, no!
重点是 虽然人类文明史延续了40亿年
The point is, even if it takes 4 billion years
但这点时间在沧桑的宇宙面前不值一提
to get civilization, the universe is way older than that.
在没有人类存在的宇宙里
An extraterrestrial species could’ve become
外星生命可能已经在科技上
technologically advanced several times over
领先人类好几倍了
during that time, so who knows
谁知道那时究竟有多少外星文明呢?
how many alien cultures could be out there?
外星生命很可能在俯视着芸芸众生:
They’re probably looking at us right now like,
“他们咋还在用厕纸?”
“They’re still using toilet paper?
“咋不用贝壳呢?”
“They don’t know about the shells.”
8 胚种论
Number eight is the theory of panspermia.
科学上的一个巨大挑战就是
A big challenge in science is to explore the conditions
探索导致无机质自我复制的条件
which led inanimate matter to become self-replicating,
也就是探索物竞天择带来的进化
evolving through natural selection.
你看 那个渺小的东西就是生命的雏形
You know, that little thing called life.
大部分相关理论都涉及到早期地球环境
Most theories involve the early Earth environment,
但有个理论显得与众不同
but one theory is a little different.
胚种论声称
The theory of panspermia states that life
生命的起源不在地球 在地球之外
didn’t start on Earth, but instead was brought here.
等一下 你千万别以为
Now hold on, before you start to
人类是古代时外星生命带到地球上的
think that ancient aliens did it, panspermia
因为胚种论实际上是细菌转移学说的引用
actually refers to the transference of bacteria.
即几十亿年前
Microscopic critters were hitchhiking
微生物搭上了小行星或彗星的顺风车
on an asteroid or comet, which struck the Earth,
但这个顺风车撞上了地球
depositing life into the seas
而这些微生物被雪藏在了海底
billions of years ago.
还有 我们大家都知道
Furthermore, we know that volcanic eruptions
火山喷发或者巨大的冲击力足以将岩石碎片
or large impacts could feasibly throw out
抛掷到太空中
rocky debris into space.
借此把生命传送到另一个星球上去
This then spreads life further from planet to planet.
所以 很有可能
So, it could very well be
人类就是外星人
that we are the aliens ourselves,
因为外星人的种子洒满全宇宙 我们就是其中一粒啊
and that countless worlds havebeen seeded, just like ours.
噢 我好像发现胚种论很污
Oh, I just realized what panspermia means.
明白了 火山爆发就是射……
Get it, volcanoes just.
不太适合在这里说
That’s inappropriate.
7 深海热泉喷口
Number seven are hydrothermal vents.
我们可以确信
We know for a fact that life arose
地球上至少存在过一次生命
at least once here on Earth,
我们还能推测
and we can speculate about other planets
其他星球上可能有外星生命的存在
and say it’s likely that alien life exists,
但是 我们不能百分之百保证
but we don’t know that for a fact.
然而通过研究地球上的生命
However, by studying life here on Earth,
我们就愈发有信心说外星生命是存在的
we can increase our confidence.
目前 许多星球跟地球是迥异的
Now, there are many planetsthat are nothing like Earth.
可以说 这些星球和地球完全不同
In fact, most of them are quite different.
其中大多数星球离它们的恒星太远
Many of them are too far from their stars
所以星球上的温度很低 大多数地面生命都活不了
to have temperatures neededfor most life, like on Earth.
还有一些星球被称为“孤儿星球”
In fact, some are called orphan planets
它们就算想公转也没有恒星
and don’t even orbit a star at all.
但这些寒冷的行星上也可能存在生命
But even these cold worlds may have life.
你懂的 结成冰块的人走来走去
You know, like ice people walking around.
是我异想天开了吗?
That’s not what that means?
好吧
Okay.
地球上的海底深处 存在深海热泉喷口
Deep at the bottom of our oceans, there are hydrothermal vents,
泉口会喷出海床下面
which spew heated gas and liquid
产生的热气或热液
from beneath the sea bed.
以此热源为中心 在没有阳光的条件下
Around this heat source, a richecology of life has evolved
一个丰富的生态圈逐渐形成了
without any sunlight at all.
天体生物学家主张
Astrobiologists hold out hope
再遥远的星球也有深海热泉喷口
that even the remotest planets
天知道这些生命是以什么形态存在的
have such vents, and whoknows what creeps around them?
深海热泉喷口就像一个小型俱乐部
It’s like a little club where all the alien life
所有外星生命都聚集在这里 在海床上生生不息
can get together and hang on the seabed.
这想法太可爱了
It’s a lovely thought.
6 富饶的太阳系
Number six is the fertile solar system.
如果后院有宝
We may not need to look very far
我们就不用跑太远
to find extraterrestrial life
去找外星生命了
if our own backyard is anything to go by.
太阳系里有几个候选星球
There are several candidates for environments
它们的条件基本上可以供养生命
which could actually support life around our own solar system,
包括火星 木星和土星的卫星
including Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn.
就目前所知 火星是贫瘠的
While so far, Mars seems barren,
然而其地表以下的水中
there are telling signs that there may be life
有生命存在的迹象
under the surface living in water.
在木星和土星的卫星里 比如说“土卫二”之类的卫星
Around Jupiter and Saturn, moons such as Enceladus,
这些星球上厚厚的冰层下面
may have oceans of water underneath
可能有海水的存在
a thick crust of ice, warmed by the tidal forces
这些海水因星球转动时产生的巨大潮汐力而升温
of the huge gas giants they orbit.
一些人甚至推测
Some people have even suggested
这些寒冷星球上还可能有多细胞生命
that there could be multicellular life,
比如说像鱼一样的生物
such as fish-like creatures down there.
如果在我们的太阳系中
If life has evolved several times
生命已经进化了好几次
across our own solar system,
那么这将再次证明这个假设:
then this would again support the hypothesis
宇宙是生机勃勃的
that the universe should be teeming with life.
然而 如果文明有无限种可能
You know, if there are infinite possibilities of civilizations,
那么这也意味着外星生命的长相
then that means that there are infinite possibilities
一言难尽
of what they could look like.
或许他们的手长在额头上之类的吧
Maybe they have hands growing out their foreheads and something like that.
简直是噩梦
It’s gonna be a nightmare.
5 生命的适应力
Number five is the resilience of life.
宇宙里危机四伏
The universe is a hazardous place,
充满辐射和极端的温度
filled with radiation and extremes of temperature
可以在眨眼之间让一个人消失
which would wipe out a person in a blink of an eye.
但你去看看那些简单的缓步类动物
But, when you look at the simple tardigrade,
比如说水熊
also known as a water bear,
你就会意识到生命的适应力到底有多强
you realize just how resilient life can actually be,
即使在宇宙面前这种恢复力也毫不逊色
even when faced with the might of the universe.
这些微生物能在泥火山里生存
These microscopic animals can survive in mud volcanoes,
在海底存活
and at the bottom of the ocean,
甚至能禁得起
and can even withstand anything
介于-272~150℃的温度
between minus 272 and 150 degrees celsius.
微生物甚至可以30年不进食
It can even survive without food for 30 years,
其抗辐射能力比其他生物多1000倍
tolerate 1000 times more radiation
微生物甚至能在太空中生存
than any other animal and even survive in space.
30年不吃东西?
30 years without food?
我30分钟不吃东西都会饿得发火
I go 30 minutes without food and I get hangry.
还有一种叫做“极端微生物”的生命形态
And there are other lifeformscalled extremophiles,
它们可以在更恶劣的环境中茁壮成长
which can thrive in even harsher environments.
如果生命力这么强大
If life can be this resilient,
那么在广阔的宇宙中
then maybe there are all kinds of weird,
可能生存着各种千奇百怪
almost indestructible creatures
坚不可摧的生物
living out there in the vastness of space.
而人类肯定不会是独一无二的
And humans are definitely not one of them,
因为我不小心踢到脚趾 都能哭得像个孩子
because I just stub my toe and I cry like a baby.
对 人很脆弱
Mm, fragile.
4 生命的构件
Number four are the building blocks of life.
了解生命的构件能帮我们判断有生命存在的位置
Knowing the building blocks of life can help us identify where it might arise.
比如说 科学家推测
For example, scientists theorize
分子羟胺
that the molecule hydroxylamine
是生命的一个构件
is a building block of life.
它由氮 氢 氧元素组成
It’s comprised of nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen,
这些元素在地球上很常见
elements which are common here on Earth.
天文学家探测到大量的分子羟胺存在于
And astronomers have detected it in abundance
距离我们的太阳系仅1000光年的一颗恒星上
around a star just 1000 light years from our solar system.
所以这种情况是很有可能的:
So, it’s very possible that where we find
那些存在生命构件的地方 也有生命存在
the building blocks of life, hopefully we can find life itself.
此外 我们也有以生物化学假想为基础的
But there are also scientific models
科学模型
based on hypothetical biochemistry
模型提出 那些外星生命
that state that life on other planets
可能有不同的生命构件
may use different building blocks.
人体的主要构成元素是碳 因为地球上有很多碳
We’re carbon-based lifeforms because there’s a lot of carbon on Earth,
但或许在其他星球上就不是这样
but perhaps on another planet,
其他星球上大量存在的可能是硅元素
something like silicon is the most abundant element,
那么外星生命就是以硅元素为基础的
and therefore life could evolve from that.
如果真是这样的话
If that is the case, extraterrestrial life
那有外星生命存在的地方
could exist in many more locations
将远远超出我们的想象
than we even imagine.
3 物竞天择说
Number three is natural selection.
进化论指出外星生命是可能存在的
Evolution may mandate that there is extraterrestrial life out there,
不仅如此 肯定还有一些掌握高科技的生命
and not only that, but that there must be life
他们能使用科技在太空中旅行
which has technology and usesit to travel through space.
物竞天择说是
Natural selection is the cornerstone
进化论的基础原则
principle of evolution.
物竞天择的内容是:适者生存
It’s the idea of survival of the fittest,
即只有那些适应生存环境的生物体
the idea that organisms adapt to their environments
才能最终存活下来
and eventually thrive
因为只有通过基因变异 生命才得以存活
because only the genetic mutations which make survival possible
得以延续
are actually passed on.
地球上物竞天择的例子数不胜数
We see it throughout Earth.
无数生物体适应了周围的环境
Millions of organisms adapted to their surrounding environments.
如果我们假设 某种形式的物竞天择
So, if we assume that some form of natural selection
成就了他处的简单生命
leads to simple life elsewhere,
那么漫长的几十亿年以来 同样的过程
then that same process will, over billions of years,
也会创造出像我们人类这样的生物
lead to creatures like ourselves
这些生物也有能力改变环境
who can change our environments.
我想知道有没有生活在
I would love to find out that there are aliens
火山星球上的外星生命
that survived on a volcanic planet.
“火”星人!
Fire aliens!
听起来好帅
Sounds badass.
第2 科技为王
Number two is technology is king.
接下来我们要探讨一些非同寻常的概念
Okay, we are now headinginto some out-there ideas,
但是请勇敢地随我踏上征程吧
but be brave and come with me on this journey.
我的要求不多
I won’t ask for much.
只需要你的理智 就是这样
Maybe your sanity, but that’s about it.
我们不断创新科技 制造新科技
We are constantly innovating and creating new technologies,
然后这些科技再引起其他突破
and those technologies then lead to other breakthroughs.
这是一个哲学概念
There is a philosophical concept
即我们只不过是科技的“生殖器官”
that we are merely the reproductive organs of technology,
我们创造出更多科技
creating more of it until that technology
直到这些科技可以自我复制 自己开始征程
can replicate itself and head out on its own.
好吧 请交出你的理智
Yep, hand over your sanity please.
亚瑟·C·克拉克曾提出一个想法:
Arthur C. Clark explored this idea
宇宙是如此的广袤
that space is so vast that we wouldn’t actually
以至于我们不能真的相逢外星人
ever meet aliens, but instead,
但我们可以遇见外星人的科技
would encounter their technology.
如果真的发现了外星生命
If there are aliens out there,
那么这些外星生命可能是科技碎片
they may be pieces of technology
可能是被复制出来以探索宇宙的科技碎片
which replicate and explore the universe.
按照这种逻辑
In this way, one alien civilization
一种外星文明可以诞生成千上万的孩子
could give birth to millions of others.
我觉得这样也不错
And I’m fine with this,
只要诞出的不是大反派“终结者”和“博格人”就行
as long as they aren’t the Terminator or the Borg.
是那样就太糟了
That would suck for us.
第1 强人择原理
And number one is the strong anthropic principle.
强人择原理认为
The strong anthropic principle states
我们之所以存在于宇宙中
that the reason we exist in this universe
是因为我们的宇宙让生命成为可能
is because our universe makes life likely.
从物理法则上看 宇宙的组织形式
It’s organized in such a way that all the laws
使其在某一时刻能创造出感性的 聪慧的
of physics make sentient, intelligent, technology-building creatures
能发展科技的生物
probable at some point.
数学家詹姆斯·英格兰
The mathematician James England
甚至创立了一个数学理论
has even developed a mathematical theory
用来说明生命是必然产生的
which states that life has to happen,
生命的产生就像岩石滚下山坡
that it’s as miraculous as a rock
那样不可思议
rolling down a hill.
生命能够产生是因为
It will happen because our universe
我们的宇宙参数刚好使生命的发生成为可能
has all the right parameters to make it so.
如果事实的确如此 那么很有可能
If this is the case, then it’s very likely
我们人类在宇宙中不是独一无二的
that we are not alone in the universe.
这节课就到这里 同学们可以摘下锡箔帽啦
And now you know, you may take your tinfoil hats off, class.
以上就是10个关于外星人可能存在的
So, that was 10 credible explanations
合理解释
why aliens likely exist.
如果你喜欢本视频
But if you guys enjoyed this,
别忘了给个大大的赞
remember to give it a big thumbs up.
还有 一定要订阅我的频道哦
Also, be sure to subscribe to my channel,
请记得点击订阅按钮旁边的小铃铛
and turn on notifications by clicking
这样就能打开通知
the little bell beside the subscribe button,
不会错过任何精彩视频了
so that you never miss a thing,
因为我会保持更新视频的
because I release new videos all the time.
感谢大家的观看 下次再见
Thank you guys for watching and I’ll see you on the other side.
回家吃饭吧
Time to take off!

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视频概述

本视频列举了10个原因,来证明外星人是极有可能存在的。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vImg4fGPebc

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