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10种神奇招式避免被捕食

10 Bizarre Ways to Avoid Being Dinner

给你个提示:如果你是一只野生动物
Here’s a protip: If you’re an animal in the wild,
那就要想方设法使自己避免成为别人的美餐
try not becoming someone else’s dinner.
你才会活的更久而且能有更大的几率将你的基因继续传递下去
You’ll survive longer and have a better chance of passing on your genes.
你可以和周围环境融为一体 或者把自己装扮成倒胃口的东西
You could blend in with the background, or disguise yourself as something unappetizing
……比如 一坨屎的样子
… like a pile of poop!
或许你会反其道而行 用鲜艳醒目的颜色让捕食者知道你是有毒的
Or you could do the opposite, and have garish colors to let predators know you’re toxic.
多数情况是安全的 因此被吃掉的也许就是一些更特别的动物而不是你
There’s safety in numbers, so maybe some stranger will be eaten instead of you.
或者尽量保持清醒 在捕食者睡着的时候赶紧逃跑吧
Or try waking up after your predators have gone to sleep.
动物世界中的成员都在进化过程中逐渐产生了用来对抗猎食者的各种适应性特征
All kinds of antipredator adaptations have evolved across the animal kingdom,
从身体特征到行为方式
from physical features to behaviors.
而其中一些动物用来求生的方式相当奇葩
And some animals use pretty bizarre strategies to stay safe.
[介绍][第一种 食虫蝽象]或者[第一种 食虫蝽象和它们的肉盾伪装]
[INTRO] [1. Assassin bugs] or [1. Assassin bugs and their camo meat-shield]
食虫蝽象因它们猎食昆虫的技能而得名
Assassin bugs are named for their predatory skills,
但它们实际上也只能处于食物链的中间
but they’re actually somewhere in the middle of the food chain.
因此有一种食虫蝽象为了避免捕食者的攻击
So there’s a species of assassin bug that avoids the wrath of its predators
就把吃完的昆虫尸体背在身上!
by wearing the corpses of its prey!
这种昆虫简直就是蚂蚁杀手
This bug is mostly an ant-killer,
它们用像吸管一样的口器 先溶解外层组织
using sharp straw-like mouthparts to dissolve the tissue
再把那些有营养的肉液吸出来
and suck out those nutritious juices.
吸食完后它们并不将猎物尸体的躯壳扔掉
But instead of tossing the leftover exoskeletons,
而是吐出细丝将它们缠起来
the assassin bug sticks them together with tiny threads
然后粘在自己背上
and stacks them on its back.
它们的捕食者之一就是跳蛛
Now, one of its predators is jumping spiders,
而跳蛛是靠视力捕食的
which rely on their eyesight for hunting.
一次2007年的调查显示 跳蛛
And a 2007 study showed that jumping spiders
袭击这些背着尸体的蝽象的次数
are around 10 times less likely to attack
还不到对没背尸体蝽象袭击次数的十分之一
corpse-laden assassin bugs than bare-backed ones.
研究人员认为 这种背着蚂蚁尸体的蝽象在形态和动作上都会有一些改变——
Researchers think the ant-corpse backpack changes the bug’s outline and movement –
因此靠视力猎食的捕食者无法分辨它到底能不能吃
so predators that depend on vision just can’t tell that it’s food.
就算它们真的发动攻击 一口下去估计也只能咬满满一口蚂蚁尸体
Or if they did attack, they might just get a heaping mouthful of ant corpses
那味道估计好不到哪去 而食虫蝽象则趁机溜掉了……
as the assassin bug scurries away … which doesn’t sound all that delicious.
[第二个 蛾]或[第二种 蛾与蝙蝠的对决:警告 干扰 空中坠落]
[2. Moths] or [2. Moths vs. bats: warning, jamming, and dropping out of the sky]
蝙蝠觅食不靠视力 而是靠声音
Instead of sight, bats hunt using sound,
也就是回声定位
also known as echolocation.
它们夜间发出的声波基本上
Basically, they call into the night at frequencies
都是高于人耳能分辨的频率的
higher than we humans can hear.
反弹回来的可听声信号
The audio signals that bounce back
可以使蝙蝠知道周围有什么东西
let the bat know what’s around:
树 建筑物 或许有一只美味的飞蛾
trees, buildings, or maybe a tasty moth.
虽然蛾看起来可能是轻而易举就能抓到的
Moths may seem like an easy meal,
但那并不意味着蛾对空中捕食者一点防御能力都没有哦
but that doesn’t mean they are defenseless against their flying foes.
某些蛾 如较大的蜡螟
Some, like the greater wax moth,
已经进化的有能力来探测高声调的声音
have evolved the ability to detect high-pitched sounds,
如蝙蝠用来回声定位的声波
like bat echolocation clicks.
如果它们感觉到有只蝙蝠距离太近
If they sense a bat getting too close,
它们可能会四处乱飞 甚至会从天上掉下来
they might fly in wild patterns, or even drop out of the sky
以避免被捕食
to avoid being caught.
其它蛾在更远的距离感受到超声波并发出它们自己的声音来吓走蝙蝠
Other moths take it further and emit clicks of their own to freak the bats out,
或告诉它们 “我不好吃 别吃我!”
or tell them, “I’m not tasty, don’t eat me!”
还有 少数种类的虎蛾甚至会用它们的声波扰乱蝙蝠的
Plus, a few species of tiger moth can even use their clicks to interfere with the bat’s
回声定位 这是一种干扰技术。
echolocation, a process called jamming.
蝙蝠探测不到一个清晰的飞蛾可听声模式 得到的只有混乱的信号——
Rather than detecting a clear “moth” audio pattern, the bat gets a garbled signal –
而且会在混乱中找不到飞蛾的行踪
and can lose track of the moth in its confusion.
[第三个 加利福尼亚地松鼠]或[第三个 加利福尼亚地松鼠的‘热尾巴’]
[3. California ground squirrels] or [3. The California ground squirrel’s ‘hot-tail’]
加利福尼亚地松鼠妈妈会用它们的尾巴玩一些把戏
California ground squirrel moms also have a few tricks up their tails
来保护幼崽安全 使其避免成为饥饿捕食者的口中餐
to keep their young safe from hungry predators.
首先 它们凶猛好斗
First off, they’re tough and willing to fight
——因为其有着锋利的牙齿和爪子 而且随着进化 居然还产生了对响尾蛇毒液的抵抗力
– with sharp teeth and claws, and have even evolved resistance to rattlesnake venom.
因此很多捕食者对她发出的警告信号比较小心
So lots of predators take heed of her warning signals.
如果遇见的是像狐狸或獾这样的哺乳动物 她会大声叫喊。
If it’s a mammal like a fox or badger, she’ll call loudly.
大概意思是说 “我已经看见你了。
Basically saying, “I’ve seen you.
你最好走开。”
You better stay away.”
可是像蛇这样的捕食者可能听不清甚至听不见空气传播的声音
But predators like snakes probably don’t hear airborne sounds as clearly, or even at
所以对它们叫喊就是白费力气
all, so shouting would be a waste of energy.
相反 她要用摇尾巴的方式:
Instead, she uses tail-flagging:
摇动她那毛茸茸的尾巴来警告捕食者后退
waving her bushy tail to tell them to back off.
然而这并没有完:有些响尾蛇长着
But that’s not all: some rattlesnakes have heat-sensing organs
用来探测红外线的热感应器官
that detect infrared energy.
如果有一只响尾蛇悄悄爬过来
If one of these rattlesnakes is prowling around,
加利福尼亚地松鼠会在摇尾巴时使尾巴变热
California ground squirrels heat up their tails while tail-flagging
——可能是加速血液流动的结果
– probably through increased blood flow.
响尾蛇接到信息后
When the rattlesnakes get the message,
行为就会发生戏剧性的转变
their behavior changes dramatically,
由进攻变为防守
from predatory to defensive.
研究者认为这种热尾反应是一种有针对性的适应能力
Researchers think this hot-tail action is a special adaptation,
因为地松鼠只在响尾蛇出现时才用这种能力——
because the squirrels only use it with rattlesnakes-
如果遇见不能感应红外线的牛蛇 它就不会这样做了
not gopher snakes, which can’t sense infrared.
所以进化教给这些哺乳动物很多策略
So evolution has given these mammals a bunch of strategies
来帮助它们的后代生存下去
to help future generations survive.
[第四种 投弹甲虫]或[第四种 投弹甲虫的炙热酸液]
[4. Bombardier beetles] or [4. The boiling acid of bombardier beetles]
投弹甲虫不是最优雅的甲虫
Bombardier beetles aren’t the most graceful things.
它们体型笨重 即使会飞
They’re bulky, and even though they can fly,
也要花些时间才能飞上天
it takes a while to get airborne.
但是如果感到有危险 它会为自己争取一些时间……哪怕会给它带来剧痛
But if one feels threatened, it can buy itself some time … with raw pain!
这种甲虫会将背部下端对准攻击者,
Tilting its back end towards its aggressor,
喷出数股滚烫的毒液
the beetle fires explosive pulses of boiling hot, toxic liquid.
这种甲虫的腹内有两个隔开的腔
The beetle’s abdomen contains two separate chambers,
里面分别存有对苯二酚和过氧化氢
storing hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide respectively.
两者剧烈反应会生成滚烫的高压苯醌喷雾:这种化学武器
These react violently into a hot, high-pressure spray of benzoquinones: chemical irritants
几乎能使所有捕食者望而却步
that deter virtually all predators.
麻省理工学院的研究者曾经研究过这种超级能力
Researchers from MIT have been studying this superpower.
同步辐射X射线成像观察甲虫在喷射液体时的体内的情况
They used synchrotron X-ray imaging to see inside the beetle as it detonates.
他们发现这种甲虫体内柔软的薄膜和喷射阀门结构复杂 但是
The flexible membranes and valves they discovered were complex, but they were only a few evolutionary
与那些弱的多的甲虫相比 它们的内部结构只是在进化中产生了少数几处细微的变化
tweaks away from the beetle’s much-less-violent relatives.
对于这种甲虫如何合成这种强力化学喷雾以及如何用其防身的认识
Understanding how this insect creates and survives these intense chemical sprays could
甚至可以帮助工程师研制仿甲虫动力系统和防爆系统
even help engineers develop beetle-inspired propulsion and blast-protection systems.
[第五种 黑冕山雀]或[第五种 黑冕山雀呼叫信号]
[5. Black-capped chickadees] or [5. Black-capped chickadee call signs]
下面该黑冕山雀了
Next up are black-capped chickadees.
它们是北美洲的常见鸟类
They’re common North American birds,
也是许多鸟类捕食者 也就是猛禽类的美餐
and tasty treats for many birds of prey, also known as raptors.
这些小鸣鸟有一些出奇复杂的交流方式 用特殊的
But these little songbirds have surprisingly complex ways of communicating, with special
叫声来触发“攻击”过“逃跑”的反应
calls that trigger fight or flight reactions.
如果一只黑冕山雀发现了一只正在空中盘旋着寻找猎物的猛禽 它就会用一种柔和的 高声调的
If a chickadee spots a soaring raptor, ready to snatch a meal, it’ll use a soft, high-pitched
“seet”声
“seet” call.
这有点像是在迫切急促地低语:“现在下降!”
This works like an urgent whisper: “get down now!”
但是如果面对的是不太紧急的威胁 比如看见一只正在休息的猛禽
But a less immediate threat, like a perched raptor,
它们就要用有名的“chick-a-dee”叫声信号来表示
is signalled by the famous “chick-a-dee” call,
这种叫声呼唤同伴武装起来
which can be a call-to-arms.
这种叫声会把整个鸟群都聚集起来 有时还会招来其它鸟类
The call rallies the whole flock, and even— sometimes other species,
一起去围攻骚扰捕食者
to mob and pester the raptor.
捕食者没有了藏身之处 它最好的办法就是去别处觅食
With its cover blown, the predator’s best bet is to try elsewhere.
研究者认为山雀的chick-a-dee叫声也可以将捕食者的一些细节表述出来
Researchers think that chick-a-dee calls could encode some detail about the predator, as well.
“dee”音越多 威胁等级越高——记录中山雀的叫声中的“dee”音
The more “dee” syllables, the bigger the threat level – and up to 23 “dees” have
曾出现过多达23次!
been recorded!
[第六种 扳机鱼]或[第六种 扳机鱼用鳍进行一级防范禁闭]
[6. Triggerfish] or [6. Triggerfish lockdown with a fin]
体色艳丽 长相有些呆萌的扳机鱼
The colorful, kind of goofy-looking triggerfish
可以在世界各地的温暖海洋水域里见到
are found in warm ocean waters around the world,
而它和别的一些动物相比 要更谨慎
and play it safer than some of these other animals.
它们在海底寻觅像软体动物和甲壳类这样的动物当作食物
They search the ocean floor for food, like molluscs and crustaceans.
但是如果有危险 它们就要去距离最近的岩缝里藏起来
But if threatened, they’ll head for the nearest cubbyhole to hide.
看 扳机鱼有两个带刺的背鳍 通常是贴着它们的身体的
See, triggerfish have two spiny dorsal fins that normally lie flat against their body.
如果它们挤入岩缝 就会将这些背鳍棘卡于竖直位置使自己固定在那里
If they’re wedged in a crevice, they can lock these spines upright to stay in place.
那样的话 对于金枪鱼和鲯鳅这样的捕食者来说 想要把它们拽出来吞掉
That way, it’s a lot harder for predators like tuna and dolphinfish to pull them out
就难多了
and swallow them.
充当“扳机”的是短的楔形背鳍棘 它控制着那个更长一点的主背鳍棘
The “trigger” is a shorter, wedge-shaped spine that controls the longer, main spine.
要将背鳍棘放平 唯一要做的就是压下“扳机” 可是捕食者
Pressing the trigger down is the only thing that’ll flatten the dorsal fin, but predatory
实在够不着它 甚至不知道解除禁闭的机关在哪
fish can’t really get to it, or even know that’s where the release-mechanism is.
不过 扳机鱼身上有控制扳机背鳍棘的肌肉 而且它觉得自己安全了可以离开岩缝时就会
A triggerfish does have muscular control over this trigger spine, though, and can flatten
再次将背鳍棘放平
its fins again when it feels safe enough to leave its crevice.
[第七种 拳击手蟹]或[第七种 戴着海葵拳击手套的螃蟹]
[7. Boxer crabs] or [7. A crab with anemone boxing gloves]
螃蟹用它们的双螯做各种事情:
Crabs use their claws for all kinds of things:
抓取食物 夹住敌人 甚至吸引
grasping food, nipping an enemy, or even attracting
异性
a mate.
而拳击手蟹 也就是绒球蟹
But boxer crabs, also known as pom-pom crabs,
要挥舞着它们套着带刺海葵的双螯……
use theirs for brandishing weapons …
来炫耀武器!
by dual-wielding stinging anemones!
那就像有毒的小型拳击手套!
Like tiny toxic boxing gloves!
拳击手蟹和不同种类的海葵已经进化成互利共生的关系
Boxer crabs and different anemone species have evolved symbiotic relationships.
这些带有条纹的螃蟹不会成为捕食者的目标 捕食者通常是一些小鱼 它们
The candy-striped crabs get protection from predators, usually small fish, who don’t
不喜欢长满带刺触须的脸
want a face-full of stinging tentacles.
反过来 24只海葵中会有7只得到能移动的贴身保镖 还能捡到螃蟹进餐时
In return, the sea anemones get a mobile bodyguard 24/7, and pick up leftover food scraps dropped
掉下来的食物残渣
by the crab.
因此这听起来是一桩相当不错的交易 然而 这种关系可能没有
So it sounds like a pretty good deal, but this relationship might not be as mutually-beneficial
看起来那样互惠互利
as it seems.
2013年的一次研究中发现拳击手蟹只是少数几次给海葵东西吃
A 2013 study found that boxer crabs only let their anemones feed for short amounts of times,
然后偷走剩余的食物自己吃
stealing the rest of the food for themselves.
这样可以使海葵保持着比单纯生活在海底海葵更小巧的体型
This keeps the anemones weight smaller than they would be if they just grew on the seafloor
——(对于螃蟹来说)简直就像可以随身携带的小盆栽一样
– almost like portable bonsai.
所以 即使这份关系看起来很可爱 事实上这更多的是一种单方面控制的
So even though this relationship looks kind of cute, it’s actually more of a one-sided,
寄生性质的交易
parasitic deal.
[第八种 盲鳗]或[第八种 盲鳗的粘液与打结战术]
[8. Hagfish] or [8. Slime and twist with the hagfish]
盲鳗 从另一个方面 看上去
Hagfish, on the other hand, look about
和它们的名字一样让人没胃口
an unappealing as their name suggests.
它们对抗捕食者的方式也是相当不雅的
Their antipredator defense is pretty gross, too.
如果面对鲨鱼这样的掠食者受到惊吓或被其捕获 盲鳗就会从粘液孔喷出一堆
If startled or grabbed by a predator like a shark, a hagfish will spew out a bunch of
滑腻腻的粘液裹住全身
goopy slime from pores all over its body.
黏液由黏蛋白和其他丝状蛋白组成 这些东西在水中舒展开会形成一团 形成
The slime is made from mucins and other thread-like proteins that expand in water, creating a
浓稠的胶冻状物质 糊的到处都是
thick gel that gets everywhere!
不仅不雅 这种黏液还有会使对方丧命
Beyond just being gross, this mucus is potentially lethal.
它并没有毒性 却能堵塞攻击者的鳃
It’s not toxic, but it can clog the gills of attacking fish,
可能是其使水不易流动的原因
probably by keeping water from flowing as easily.
突然间 捕食者就得使出浑身解数使自己免于窒息而亡
All of a sudden, the predator has to focus on not suffocating to death,
而不是将盲鳗做为午餐吃掉了
rather than finishing its lunch.
还有 为了使自己快速脱离黏液
Plus, to make a speedy exit,
盲鳗能够用它们柔软的身体扭成一个“反手结”形状
hagfish can twist their flexible bodies into an “overhand knot” shape
来摆脱黏液层 然后溜走
to wipe off the mucus layer and slip away.
盲鳗的黏液是一个很热门的研究领域 因为科学家努力尝试着找出黏液中大量
Hagfish slime is an area of active research, as scientists try and figure out how the massively
长蛋白纤维如何储存以及展开的方法原理
long protein fibers in the slime are stored and deployed.
有个实验室甚至讨论着将来要用类似的蛋白质材料做成结实耐用 有弹性
One lab is even talking about threading similar proteins into tough, stretchy clothing of
的衣服!
the future!
[第九种 汤氏瞪羚]或[第九种 跳跃—汤氏瞪羚]
[9. Thomson’s gazelle] or [9. Pronking – Thomson’s gazelle]
跳跃或者弹跳 可能听起来像是一些新潮的网络时尚用语
Pronking, or stotting, may sound like some new internet fad,
但它却指的是一个有用意的 能使某些动物活下来的举动
but it’s a move with a message that keeps some animals alive.
在非洲平原上 像汤氏瞪羚这样的食草动物会成群的出来溜达
In the African plains, herbivores like the Thomson’s gazelle tend to hang out in herds,
同时 许多双眼睛都在警惕地关注着有没有大型猫科动物这样的捕食者出没
keeping multiple eyes on the lookout for predators, like big cat species.
那么 做为一只瞪羚 在群体中你可能有些安全感 但你仍然要确保
So, as a gazelle, you may have some safety in numbers, but you still want to make sure
自己不要成为捕食者的目标
the predator isn’t going for you.
捕食者不愿意把自己宝贵的体力浪费在失败的狩猎上 所以很多捕食者会认真挑选
Predators don’t want to waste precious energy on a failed hunt, so many of them choose their
狩猎目标——可能会选一只看起来较为弱小的瞪羚
target carefully – maybe a weaker-looking gazelle.
因此 一些将要被捕食的动物就跳起来了!
So, some prey animals pronk!
基本上 进行一次高空跳跃要拱起脊背
Basically, it’s a high leap in the air with an arched back,
四腿绷直
and all four legs straightened out.
也许看起来像一项浪费体力的活动 而一些研究者认为那
It might seem like a wasteful, energy-intensive activity, but some researchers think that’s
就是关键
the point.
跳跃可以显示出这只瞪羚有逃生的力气 捕食者最好去选择别的猎物
Pronking could show that a gazelle has strength to spare, and predators had better pick someone
做为它们的美餐
else for their dinner.
[第十种 步甲幼虫]或[第十种 步甲幼虫与两栖动物的对抗:成为捕食者!]
[10. Ground beetle larvae] or [10. Ground beetle larvae vs amphibians: become the predator!]
在许多情况下 食物链都是规定的相当好的:
In many cases, the food chain is pretty well-defined:
像狮子如何吃掉斑马 蜘蛛如何吃掉苍蝇
Like how lions eat zebra, how spiders eat flies,
多数两栖动物怎样吃掉步甲幼虫
or how many amphibians eat ground beetle larvae.
对 大多数情况是这样的
well, most of the time
无独有偶 在进化中也会出现角色反转的时候
Once in a rare while, there’s an evolutionary role reversal.
介绍一下黄缘步甲幼虫:当猎物变身捕食者的时候!
Introducing the Epomis larva: when prey becomes predator!
单只步甲幼虫表现出中笨拙而无助的样子
The lone larva acts all innocent and helpless,
四处蠕动着来诱惑想要捕食它的对象
wriggling around to entice the would-be predators.
对于别的步甲幼虫来说
For any other ground beetle larva,
一只饥饿的青蛙快速跳着冲过来就意味着它的末日来临了
the high-speed lunge from a hungry frog would mean game-over.
而黄缘步甲幼虫等的就是这一刻:
But Epomis larvae are ready and waiting:
它头部突然转向一边 躲开青蛙的袭击
With a sudden head flick, the grub dodges the frog’s attack
并从后面进攻
and strikes back.
它坚利的口咬在青蛙的身体上开始啃食 并吮吸
It latches on to the frog’s body with its tough jaws and starts to chow down, sucking
汁液 最终将青蛙柔软的肌肉吃完
out fluids and eventually eating away at the soft froggy flesh.
我们不能准确判断这种这种转变是怎样进化而来的 但是在科学家进行的约400
We’re not exactly sure how this switcheroo evolved, but when scientists conducted nearly
次对步甲幼虫与两栖动物的殊死战斗的观察中 步甲幼虫每次都会赢
400 Epomis larva versus amphibian battles-to-the-death, the grub won every single time.
所以不管这些步甲幼虫是怎样完成战斗的 (这些方法)现在对于他们来说很有效!
So however these ground beetle larvae managed it, it’s working well for them now!
动物世界会相当残酷的 因为每只动物仅仅是在设法捕食并生存下去
The animal kingdom can be pretty brutal, because everyone’s just trying to eat and stay alive.
然而进化使万物保持着有趣的一面 尤其是被捕食动物的一些有创意的适应
But evolution keeps things interesting, especially with all the creative adaptations in prey
方式——从隐藏 到吵闹 再到奋勇抵抗
animals – from hiding, to making a scene, to really putting up a fight.
感谢收看本期科学秀列表展示节目 同时特别要感谢所有的赞助我们人
Thanks for watching this SciShow List Show, and thanks especially to all of our patrons
是你们的赞助使本节目得以播放
on Patreon who make this show possible.
如果你想要帮助我们继续录制这样的视频 只需登录patreon.com/scishow网站
If you want to help us keep making videos like this, just go to patreon.com/scishow.
还有别忘了登录youtube.com/scishow订阅哦!
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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视频概述

动物界的成员们为求得生存也练就一身好本事,有安静的,有吵闹的,有逆来顺受的,也有不安于现状的……来看看它们都有些什么样的奇葩本领吧

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收集自网络

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6Q8F2dShFs

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